Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Ya°,[pron.rel.base; Vedic yaḥ=Gr.o(ζ who; cp.Goth.jabai if,--ei rel.part.An amplification of the dem.pron.base *i-,*ei- (cp.ayaṁ).See on detail Brugmann,“Die indogerm.Pronomina” in Ber.d.sächs.Ges.LX.41 sq.) I.Forms.(See inflection also at Geiger,P.Gr.§ 110.) The decl.is similar to that of ta°; among the more rarely found forms we only mention the foll.:sg.Nom.m.yo with by-form (in hiatus) yv-,as yvâyaṁ=yo ayaṁ M.I,258; yvâssa=yo assa M.I,137.Notice the lengthening of the subsequent vowel.‹-› An unsettled ya is to be found at J.V,424 (Fausböll remarks “for yassā”?; perhaps to be combd with preceding pañcapatikā; C.on p.427 expls ya-kāro nipātamatto)-- Abl.yasmā in adv.use; yamhā Dh.392.-- Loc.yamhi Dh.261,372,393.-- f.Loc.yassaṁ A.III,151 (see below).See further adv.use of cases (below II.5).-- At Pv.II,16 yāhi is doubtful (perhaps imper.=yajahi,of yajati; C.leaves it unexpld).

Special mention must be made of the nt.n.Acc.sg.where both yaṁ and yad are found.The (Vedic) form yad (Ved.yat) has been felt more like ya+expletive (Sandhi-) d,and is principally found in adv.use and certain archaic phrases,whereas yaṁ represents the usual (Pali) form (like tad and taṁ).See more under II.-- A Māgadhized form is ye (after se=taṁ),found at D.II,278 (see Geiger § 1052 & 1102.Cp.Trenckner,Notes 75.).The expression ye-bhuyyena may belong under this category,if we explain it as yad+bhuyyena (bhuyyena equivalent to bhiyyoso).It would then correspond to seyyathā (=sad+yathā,cp.sayathā,sace,taṁyathā).See refs.under yebhuyyena.-- The expression yevāpanaka is an adj.formn from the phrase ye-vā-pana (=yaṁ vā pana “whatever else there is”),i.e.belonging to something of the same kind,i.e.corresponding,reciprocal,as far as concerned,respective.(See s.v.) -- In adv.use it often corresponds to E.as; see e.g.yad-icchakaṁ,yad-idaṁ (under II.2 b; II,4 b.).

II.Meaning:“which,” in correspondence to a following demonstr.pron.(ta°); whichever (generalizing); nt.what,whatever.In immediate combn with the demonstr.pron.it is qualifying and specifying the person,thing or subject in discussion or question (see below 4).

1.Regular use as correl.pron.when ya° (+noun) is followed by ta° (+noun).Sometimes (in poetry) the reverse is the case,e.g.at It.84 where ta° (m.sa) is elliptically omitted:atthaṁ na jānāti yaṁ lobho sahate naraṁ “he does not know good,whom greed overcomes.” -- Otherwise regular,e.g.:yassa jātarūparajataṁ kappati pañca pi tassa kāmaguṇā kappanti S.IV,326.In a generalizing sense (cp.below II.3):yo so “der erste beste,” some or other,whoever,any J.IV,38; V,362; yaṁ vā taṁ vā karotu let her do whatever she likes VvA.208; yasmiṁ vā tasmiṁ vā on every occasion S.I,160 na yoso vā yakkho not this or that yakkha i.e.not any (ordinary) kind of Yakkha (but Inda) DA.I,264.-- The same use (ordinary correlative) applies to the nt.forms yaṁ & yad in correl.to taṁ and tad.(See sep.under II.2.)

2.Use of nt.forms.-- (a) nt.yaṁ (a) as pronoun:S.III,44 (yaṁ dukkhaṁ ...tad anattā); It.78 (yañ c’aññaṁ whatever else); VbhA.54 (yaṁ labbhati yañ ca na labbhati taṁ sabbaṁ pucchitvā).See also under 3 a (yaṁ kiñci,yaṁ yaṁ).-- (b) as adj.adv.:yaṁmukha facing what,turned where (?) J.V,475 (but C.reads & expls sammukha!); yaṁ--vipāka having what or which kind of fruit D.II,209.yaṁ vā ...yaṁ vā whether ...or S.II,179; yaṁ no ...na tv’eva neither ...nor S.II,179-180.-- yaṁ with pot.:“so that,” that (corresp.to Lat.ut consecutivum) S.III,41 (yaṁ rūpe anatt’ânupassī vihareyya).J.V,339 (n’esa dhammo yaṁ taṁ jahe that I should leave you).-- In the function of other conjunctions e.g.as temporal= when,since,after:J.IV,319 (yaṁ maṁ Suruci-m-ānayi that,or since,S.married me).As conditional or causal =if,even if,because:Vin.I,276 (yaṁ te sakkā ...arogaṁ kātuṁ,taṁ karohi if it is possible ...do it; or may be taken in sense of “in whatever way you can do it,do”); J.III,206=IV.4 (yaṁ me sirasmiṁ ūhacca cakkaṁ bhamati matthake=because; C.:yena pāpena).-- (c) as adv.deictive “so,” in combn with var.other (emphatic) particles as e.g.yaṁ nūna used in an exhortative sense “well,now”; or “rather,let me”; or “so now,” always in phrase yaṁ nūn’âhaṁ “now then let me” (do this or that) very freq.either with foll.pot.e.g.“y.n.âhaṁ araññaṁ paviseyyaṁ” DhA.II,91.“y.n.â.katakammaṁ puccheyyaṁ” VvA.132; dasseyyaṁ VvA.138; pabbajjeyyaṁ M.II,55; āneyyaṁ DhA.I,46,vihareyyaṁ ibid.56; etc.cp.J.I,14,150,255; III,393; DhA.I,91; PvA.5 (avassayo bhaveyyaṁ).-- Similarly yañ hi “well then,now then” (with Pot.) S.II,210,221 (taṁ vadeyya).Cp.yagghe yañ ca & yañ ce [Sk.yac ca,or cet,ca here=ce see ca.& cp.sace=sa+ce] (rather) than that:yañ ca Th.2,80; J.I,210; yañce (with Pot.) S.I,176; It.43; Th.1,666.saṅgāme me mataṁ seyyo yañ ce jīve parājito (than that I live vanquished) Sn.440 (cp.the intricate expln at SnA 390); similarly J.IV,495:me maraṇaṁ seyyo yañ ce jīve tayā vinā.-- (b) nt.yad: (a) as pron in regular relative use e.g.S.III,44 (yad aniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ); It.59 (yad eva diṭṭhaṁ tad ev’âhaṁ vadāmi).(b) as adv.e.g.yad-agge (Loc.) from what on,i.e.from which time,since what time D.I,152 (=mūladivasato paṭṭhāya yaṁ divasaṁ aggaṁ patvā DA.I,311); Vv 8433 (=yato paṭṭhāya VvA.344).Also as yad-aggena (Instr.) Vin.II,257 (y.Mahāpajāpati-gotamiyā aṭṭha garudhammā paṭiggahitā tad eva sā upasampannā); VbhA.387.-- yad -- atthaṁ for what,why Th.2,163.yad-atthiya as much as necessary,as required,sufficient,proper Th.1,12; 1274 (“which,for the goal desirous,he led” trsl.; refers to brahmacariyaṁ).The same verse occurs at Sn.354.The latter passage is mentioned in P.D.under atthiya with meaning “on account of what” (cp.kim-atthiyaṁ S.III,189).The Sn.passage is not expld in SnA.-- yad-icchakaṁ whatever is pleasant,i.e.according to liking,as he pleases A.III,28; Pug.11,12; J.I,141 (y.bhutta eaten heartily); Vism.154 (+yavadicchaka); VvA.341.Cp.yen’icchakaṁ below II.5.-- yad-icchita see under yathā-icchita! -- yadidaṁ:see below II.4 b.

3.Generalizing (or distributive) use of ya:There are two modes of generalization,viz.(a) by repeating ya°:yassa yass’eva sālassa mūle tiṭṭhasi,so so muñcati pupphāni; “at the foot of whichever tree you stand,he (in all cases concerned) sheds flowers” Vv 393; yaṁ yaṁ hi manaso piyaṁ “whatever is pleasant to the senses” Pv.II,118; yaṁ yaṁ passati taṁ taṁ pucchati “whomsoever he sees,him he asks” J.III,155; yassaṁ yassaṁ disāyaṁ viharati,sakasmiṁ yeva vijite viharati” in whichever region he lives,he lives in his own realm” A.III,151; yo yo yaṁ yaṁ icchati tassa tassa adāsi “whatever anybody wished he gave to him” PvA.113; yaṁ yaṁ padesaṁ bhajati tattha tatth’eva assa lābhasakkāro nibbattati “whichever region he visits,there (in each) will he have success” DhA.II,82.-- (b) by combination with ko-ci (cp.the identical Lat.qui-cun-que):yassa kassaci rāgo pahīno ayaṁ vuccati ...“the lust of whosoever is abandoned he is called so & so” It.56.yāni kānici vatthūni ...sabbāni tāni ...It.19; ye keci ārabbha “with ref.to whosoever” PvA.17; yaṁ kiñci whatever Pv.I,41

4.Dependent & elliptic use of ya (with pron.demonstr.).This represents a sort of deictic (emphatic) use,with ref.to what is coming next or what forms the necessary compliment to what is just being said.Thus it introduces a general truth or definition,as we would say “just this,namely,i.e.” or Ger.“so wie,und zwar.” -- (a) The usual combns are those of ya+sa (nt.taṁ) and of ya+ayaṁ (nt.idaṁ),but such with amu (nt.aduṁ) also occur:yaṁ aduṁ khettaṁ aggaṁ evam eva mayhaṁ bhikkhu-bhikkhuniyo “as there is one field which is the best,thus to me the bh.& bhikkhunīs” S.IV,315.Cp.the foll.:ya+sa e.g.at M.I.366 (yo so puriso paṭhamaṁ rukkhaṁ ārūḷho sace so na khippam eva oroheyya “just that man,who climbed up the tree first,if he does not come down very quickly”); J.II,159 (yena tena upāyena with every possible means); Pv.I,91 (yā tā [so read for yā ca!] “just she over there; who as such,i.e.such as she is”); cp.also the foll.:yā sā sīmā ...taṁ sīmaṁ Vin.I,109; ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā etc....sātthaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti tathā rūpā ‘ssa dhammā honti ...M.III,11; yāni etāni yānāni (just) these DhA.IV,6.--ya+ayaṁ e.g.at M.I,258 (yv’āyaṁ vado vedeyyo tatra tatra ...vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti); It.35=93 (nibbāpenti moh’aggiṁ paññāya yā ‘yaṁ nibbedha-gāminī:“as it is also penetrating,which as such,or in this quality,or as we know,is penetrating”); Vin.IV,134 (ye ‘me antarāyikā dhammā vuttā ...te paṭisevato n’âlaṁ antarāyāya “just those which,or whichever”).Th.1,124 (paṅko ti hi naṁ avedayuṁ yâyaṁ vandanapūjanā; here=yā ayaṁ); Dh.56 (appamatto ayaṁ gandho yâyaṁ tagara-candanī; here=yo ayaṁ); M.II,220 (yaṁ idaṁ kammaṁ ...taṁ).-- (b) nt.yadidaṁ lit.“as that,” which is this (i.e.the following),may be translated by “viz.” that is,“i.e.” in other words,so to speak,just this,“I mean”; e.g.kāmānaṁ etaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yad idaṁ nekkhammaṁ “there is an escape from the lusts,viz.lustlessness”; or:“this is the abandoning of lusts,in other words lustlessness” It.61; dve dānāni āmisa° dhamm°,etad aggaṁ imesaṁ yad idaṁ dhamma° “this is the best of them,I mean dh-d.” It.98=100; supaṭipanno sāvaka-saṅgho,y.i.cattāri purisa-yugāni etc.M.I,37.Instead of yadidaṁ we also find yāvañ c’idaṁ.See also examples given under yāvatā

5.Cases used adverbially:Either locally or modally; with regards to the local adverbs it is to be remarked that their connotation is fluctuating,inasmuch as direction and place (where) are not always distinguished (cp.E.where both meanings=where & where-to),but must be guessed from the context.(a) Instr.yena:(local) where (i.e.at which place) D.I,71 (yena yena wherever),220 (yattha yena yahiṁ=whence,where,whither; not with trsln Dial.I.281:where,why,whence!),238 (id.); yenatena where (he was) --there (he went) D.I,88,106,112 & passim; cp.D.II,85 (yena âvasath’âgāraṁ ten’upasaṅkami); A.II,33 (yena vā tena vā here & there or “hither & thither”).--(modal) Dh.326 (yen’icchakaṁ II.2 b.); Pv.I,112 (kiṁ akattha pāpaṁ yena pivātha lohitaṁ:so that).-Loc.yahiṁ where (or whither) Vv 8429 (yahiṁ yahiṁ gacchati tahiṁ tahiṁ modati); & yasmiṁ:yasmiṁ vā tasmiṁ vā on every occasion S.I,160.-- Abl.yasmā (only modal) because A.I,260; It.37 (corresp.to tasmā).On yasmā-t-iha see Geiger,P.Gr.735.(Page 543)

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