Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Ya°,[pron.rel.base; Vedic yaḥ=Gr.o(ζ who; cp.Goth.jabai if,--ei rel.part.An amplification of the dem.pron.base *i-,*ei- (cp.ayaṁ).See on detail Brugmann,“Die indogerm.Pronomina” in Ber.d.sächs.Ges.LX.41 sq.) I.Forms.(See inflection also at Geiger,P.Gr.§ 110.) The decl.is similar to that of ta°; among the more rarely found forms we only mention the foll.:sg.Nom.m.yo with by-form (in hiatus) yv-,as yvâyaṁ=yo ayaṁ M.I,258; yvâssa=yo assa M.I,137.Notice the lengthening of the subsequent vowel.‹-› An unsettled ya is to be found at J.V,424 (Fausböll remarks “for yassā”?; perhaps to be combd with preceding pañcapatikā; C.on p.427 expls ya-kāro nipātamatto)-- Abl.yasmā in adv.use; yamhā Dh.392.-- Loc.yamhi Dh.261,372,393.-- f.Loc.yassaṁ A.III,151 (see below).See further adv.use of cases (below II.5).-- At Pv.II,16 yāhi is doubtful (perhaps imper.=yajahi,of yajati; C.leaves it unexpld).

Special mention must be made of the nt.n.Acc.sg.where both yaṁ and yad are found.The (Vedic) form yad (Ved.yat) has been felt more like ya+expletive (Sandhi-) d,and is principally found in adv.use and certain archaic phrases,whereas yaṁ represents the usual (Pali) form (like tad and taṁ).See more under II.-- A Māgadhized form is ye (after se=taṁ),found at D.II,278 (see Geiger § 1052 & 1102.Cp.Trenckner,Notes 75.).The expression ye-bhuyyena may belong under this category,if we explain it as yad+bhuyyena (bhuyyena equivalent to bhiyyoso).It would then correspond to seyyathā (=sad+yathā,cp.sayathā,sace,taṁyathā).See refs.under yebhuyyena.-- The expression yevāpanaka is an adj.formn from the phrase ye-vā-pana (=yaṁ vā pana “whatever else there is”),i.e.belonging to something of the same kind,i.e.corresponding,reciprocal,as far as concerned,respective.(See s.v.) -- In adv.use it often corresponds to E.as; see e.g.yad-icchakaṁ,yad-idaṁ (under II.2 b; II,4 b.).

II.Meaning:“which,” in correspondence to a following demonstr.pron.(ta°); whichever (generalizing); nt.what,whatever.In immediate combn with the demonstr.pron.it is qualifying and specifying the person,thing or subject in discussion or question (see below 4).

1.Regular use as correl.pron.when ya° (+noun) is followed by ta° (+noun).Sometimes (in poetry) the reverse is the case,e.g.at It.84 where ta° (m.sa) is elliptically omitted:atthaṁ na jānāti yaṁ lobho sahate naraṁ “he does not know good,whom greed overcomes.” -- Otherwise regular,e.g.:yassa jātarūparajataṁ kappati pañca pi tassa kāmaguṇā kappanti S.IV,326.In a generalizing sense (cp.below II.3):yo so “der erste beste,” some or other,whoever,any J.IV,38; V,362; yaṁ vā taṁ vā karotu let her do whatever she likes VvA.208; yasmiṁ vā tasmiṁ vā on every occasion S.I,160 na yoso vā yakkho not this or that yakkha i.e.not any (ordinary) kind of Yakkha (but Inda) DA.I,264.-- The same use (ordinary correlative) applies to the nt.forms yaṁ & yad in correl.to taṁ and tad.(See sep.under II.2.)

2.Use of nt.forms.-- (a) nt.yaṁ (a) as pronoun:S.III,44 (yaṁ dukkhaṁ ...tad anattā); It.78 (yañ c’aññaṁ whatever else); VbhA.54 (yaṁ labbhati yañ ca na labbhati taṁ sabbaṁ pucchitvā).See also under 3 a (yaṁ kiñci,yaṁ yaṁ).-- (b) as adj.adv.:yaṁmukha facing what,turned where (?) J.V,475 (but C.reads & expls sammukha!); yaṁ--vipāka having what or which kind of fruit D.II,209.yaṁ vā ...yaṁ vā whether ...or S.II,179; yaṁ no ...na tv’eva neither ...nor S.II,179-180.-- yaṁ with pot.:“so that,” that (corresp.to Lat.ut consecutivum) S.III,41 (yaṁ rūpe anatt’ânupassī vihareyya).J.V,339 (n’esa dhammo yaṁ taṁ jahe that I should leave you).-- In the function of other conjunctions e.g.as temporal= when,since,after:J.IV,319 (yaṁ maṁ Suruci-m-ānayi that,or since,S.married me).As conditional or causal =if,even if,because:Vin.I,276 (yaṁ te sakkā ...arogaṁ kātuṁ,taṁ karohi if it is possible ...do it; or may be taken in sense of “in whatever way you can do it,do”); J.III,206=IV.4 (yaṁ me sirasmiṁ ūhacca cakkaṁ bhamati matthake=because; C.:yena pāpena).-- (c) as adv.deictive “so,” in combn with var.other (emphatic) particles as e.g.yaṁ nūna used in an exhortative sense “well,now”; or “rather,let me”; or “so now,” always in phrase yaṁ nūn’âhaṁ “now then let me” (do this or that) very freq.either with foll.pot.e.g.“y.n.âhaṁ araññaṁ paviseyyaṁ” DhA.II,91.“y.n.â.katakammaṁ puccheyyaṁ” VvA.132; dasseyyaṁ VvA.138; pabbajjeyyaṁ M.II,55; āneyyaṁ DhA.I,46,vihareyyaṁ ibid.56; etc.cp.J.I,14,150,255; III,393; DhA.I,91; PvA.5 (avassayo bhaveyyaṁ).-- Similarly yañ hi “well then,now then” (with Pot.) S.II,210,221 (taṁ vadeyya).Cp.yagghe yañ ca & yañ ce [Sk.yac ca,or cet,ca here=ce see ca.& cp.sace=sa+ce] (rather) than that:yañ ca Th.2,80; J.I,210; yañce (with Pot.) S.I,176; It.43; Th.1,666.saṅgāme me mataṁ seyyo yañ ce jīve parājito (than that I live vanquished) Sn.440 (cp.the intricate expln at SnA 390); similarly J.IV,495:me maraṇaṁ seyyo yañ ce jīve tayā vinā.-- (b) nt.yad: (a) as pron in regular relative use e.g.S.III,44 (yad aniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ); It.59 (yad eva diṭṭhaṁ tad ev’âhaṁ vadāmi).(b) as adv.e.g.yad-agge (Loc.) from what on,i.e.from which time,since what time D.I,152 (=mūladivasato paṭṭhāya yaṁ divasaṁ aggaṁ patvā DA.I,311); Vv 8433 (=yato paṭṭhāya VvA.344).Also as yad-aggena (Instr.) Vin.II,257 (y.Mahāpajāpati-gotamiyā aṭṭha garudhammā paṭiggahitā tad eva sā upasampannā); VbhA.387.-- yad -- atthaṁ for what,why Th.2,163.yad-atthiya as much as necessary,as required,sufficient,proper Th.1,12; 1274 (“which,for the goal desirous,he led” trsl.; refers to brahmacariyaṁ).The same verse occurs at Sn.354.The latter passage is mentioned in P.D.under atthiya with meaning “on account of what” (cp.kim-atthiyaṁ S.III,189).The Sn.passage is not expld in SnA.-- yad-icchakaṁ whatever is pleasant,i.e.according to liking,as he pleases A.III,28; Pug.11,12; J.I,141 (y.bhutta eaten heartily); Vism.154 (+yavadicchaka); VvA.341.Cp.yen’icchakaṁ below II.5.-- yad-icchita see under yathā-icchita! -- yadidaṁ:see below II.4 b.

3.Generalizing (or distributive) use of ya:There are two modes of generalization,viz.(a) by repeating ya°:yassa yass’eva sālassa mūle tiṭṭhasi,so so muñcati pupphāni; “at the foot of whichever tree you stand,he (in all cases concerned) sheds flowers” Vv 393; yaṁ yaṁ hi manaso piyaṁ “whatever is pleasant to the senses” Pv.II,118; yaṁ yaṁ passati taṁ taṁ pucchati “whomsoever he sees,him he asks” J.III,155; yassaṁ yassaṁ disāyaṁ viharati,sakasmiṁ yeva vijite viharati” in whichever region he lives,he lives in his own realm” A.III,151; yo yo yaṁ yaṁ icchati tassa tassa adāsi “whatever anybody wished he gave to him” PvA.113; yaṁ yaṁ padesaṁ bhajati tattha tatth’eva assa lābhasakkāro nibbattati “whichever region he visits,there (in each) will he have success” DhA.II,82.-- (b) by combination with ko-ci (cp.the identical Lat.qui-cun-que):yassa kassaci rāgo pahīno ayaṁ vuccati ...“the lust of whosoever is abandoned he is called so & so” It.56.yāni kānici vatthūni ...sabbāni tāni ...It.19; ye keci ārabbha “with ref.to whosoever” PvA.17; yaṁ kiñci whatever Pv.I,41

4.Dependent & elliptic use of ya (with pron.demonstr.).This represents a sort of deictic (emphatic) use,with ref.to what is coming next or what forms the necessary compliment to what is just being said.Thus it introduces a general truth or definition,as we would say “just this,namely,i.e.” or Ger.“so wie,und zwar.” -- (a) The usual combns are those of ya+sa (nt.taṁ) and of ya+ayaṁ (nt.idaṁ),but such with amu (nt.aduṁ) also occur:yaṁ aduṁ khettaṁ aggaṁ evam eva mayhaṁ bhikkhu-bhikkhuniyo “as there is one field which is the best,thus to me the bh.& bhikkhunīs” S.IV,315.Cp.the foll.:ya+sa e.g.at M.I.366 (yo so puriso paṭhamaṁ rukkhaṁ ārūḷho sace so na khippam eva oroheyya “just that man,who climbed up the tree first,if he does not come down very quickly”); J.II,159 (yena tena upāyena with every possible means); Pv.I,91 (yā tā [so read for yā ca!] “just she over there; who as such,i.e.such as she is”); cp.also the foll.:yā sā sīmā ...taṁ sīmaṁ Vin.I,109; ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā etc....sātthaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti tathā rūpā ‘ssa dhammā honti ...M.III,11; yāni etāni yānāni (just) these DhA.IV,6.--ya+ayaṁ e.g.at M.I,258 (yv’āyaṁ vado vedeyyo tatra tatra ...vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti); It.35=93 (nibbāpenti moh’aggiṁ paññāya yā ‘yaṁ nibbedha-gāminī:“as it is also penetrating,which as such,or in this quality,or as we know,is penetrating”); Vin.IV,134 (ye ‘me antarāyikā dhammā vuttā ...te paṭisevato n’âlaṁ antarāyāya “just those which,or whichever”).Th.1,124 (paṅko ti hi naṁ avedayuṁ yâyaṁ vandanapūjanā; here=yā ayaṁ); Dh.56 (appamatto ayaṁ gandho yâyaṁ tagara-candanī; here=yo ayaṁ); M.II,220 (yaṁ idaṁ kammaṁ ...taṁ).-- (b) nt.yadidaṁ lit.“as that,” which is this (i.e.the following),may be translated by “viz.” that is,“i.e.” in other words,so to speak,just this,“I mean”; e.g.kāmānaṁ etaṁ nissaraṇaṁ yad idaṁ nekkhammaṁ “there is an escape from the lusts,viz.lustlessness”; or:“this is the abandoning of lusts,in other words lustlessness” It.61; dve dānāni āmisa° dhamm°,etad aggaṁ imesaṁ yad idaṁ dhamma° “this is the best of them,I mean dh-d.” It.98=100; supaṭipanno sāvaka-saṅgho,y.i.cattāri purisa-yugāni etc.M.I,37.Instead of yadidaṁ we also find yāvañ c’idaṁ.See also examples given under yāvatā

5.Cases used adverbially:Either locally or modally; with regards to the local adverbs it is to be remarked that their connotation is fluctuating,inasmuch as direction and place (where) are not always distinguished (cp.E.where both meanings=where & where-to),but must be guessed from the context.(a) Instr.yena:(local) where (i.e.at which place) D.I,71 (yena yena wherever),220 (yattha yena yahiṁ=whence,where,whither; not with trsln Dial.I.281:where,why,whence!),238 (id.); yenatena where (he was) --there (he went) D.I,88,106,112 & passim; cp.D.II,85 (yena âvasath’âgāraṁ ten’upasaṅkami); A.II,33 (yena vā tena vā here & there or “hither & thither”).--(modal) Dh.326 (yen’icchakaṁ II.2 b.); Pv.I,112 (kiṁ akattha pāpaṁ yena pivātha lohitaṁ:so that).-Loc.yahiṁ where (or whither) Vv 8429 (yahiṁ yahiṁ gacchati tahiṁ tahiṁ modati); & yasmiṁ:yasmiṁ vā tasmiṁ vā on every occasion S.I,160.-- Abl.yasmā (only modal) because A.I,260; It.37 (corresp.to tasmā).On yasmā-t-iha see Geiger,P.Gr.735.(Page 543)

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