Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
uposatha:m.[Sk.upavasatha,BSk.upoṣadha,poṣadha,posatha] 布薩,齋戒,說戒,齋日.-aṅga 布薩支,八齋戒.-kamma 布薩羯磨.-gga,-āgāra,-ghara 布薩堂.
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
uposatha:m.[Sk.upavasatha,BSk.upoṣadha,poṣadha,posatha] 布薩,齋戒,説戒,齋日.-aṅga 布薩支,八齋戒.-kamma 布薩羯磨.-gga,-āgāra,-ghara 布薩堂.
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
uposatha:伍波薩他。巴利語的音譯。該詞源於梵語upavasatha。若從詞源學的角度來分析,upavasatha 由 upa (近,隨) + vas(住) + atha組成,直譯為“近住”,即在特定的日子裏持齋戒的意思。[ ☞該詞的佛教梵語被寫作poùadha, posatha或upoùadha,所以古代將之音譯為布薩、布灑他、褒灑陀、逋沙他等。若準此,則poùadha = poùa (長養,養育) + dha (凈),有長養、長養凈、增長等義。 因此,北傳的poùadha在詞、音、義等皆與巴利語uposatha有所不同。]
伍波薩他有三種意思:
1.一個月當中特定的日期——齋日
古印度的歷法屬於太陰歷,一年分十二個月,月份按月亮繞地球運轉的周期推算。推算方法是從每個月圓日的第二天明相出現(aruṇuggamana,黎明)時開始算起,到下一個月圓日的第二天明相出現為止結束[ 與中國農歷不同的是:農歷從每月的朔日(初一)算起,而古印度歷則是從十六日算起。],約三十天(小月為二十九天)的時間為一個月。如此,每個月又可分為兩個半月:從月圓日翌日開始到月黑日為“黑月”,從月黑日翌日開始到月圓日為“白月”。其中,月黑日與月圓日兩天皆稱為“十五日”(paṇṇarasika)。若遇小月,月黑日也可以在十四日。於是,在每半個月中,第八日、第十四和第十五日皆稱為“伍波薩他日”或“齋日”(uposatha-divasa)。齋日的日期約相當於中國夏歷的初八、十四、十五、二十三、廿九與三十日。
2.在家居士所持守的學處之一——八戒
自從佛陀在世時開始,在家居士就有於每個月的齋日來到塔寺,親近僧團,聽聞佛法,受持八戒的傳統。由於八戒多數是在“伍波薩他日”受持的,所以稱為“具足八支(條)的伍波薩他戒法”(aṭṭhaṅga samannāgata uposatha-sīla dhamma)。[ 北傳佛教也作八關齋戒、八戒齋。只要條件許可,居士可以在任何時候受持“伍波薩他八戒”,而非特定要在齋日才能受持。]
3.僧團舉行的甘馬之一——誦戒
佛陀規定:比庫僧應在每個月的月圓日和月黑日兩天舉行伍波薩他。在這一天,共住同一界內的所有比庫僧應齊集界場,舉行伍波薩他甘馬(uposatha kamma),念誦戒本《巴帝摩卡》(pātimokkhuddesa)。
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
uposatha:(律學名詞)伍波薩他, (古音譯:)布薩,布沙他
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Uposatha,【陽】 布薩,齋戒日,遵守八戒,佛教比丘每半個月誦波羅提木叉。 ~kamma,【中】 布薩業,遵守布薩。 【中】 布薩堂。(p77)
《巴漢詞典》明法尊者增訂
Uposatha,posatha,(梵(u)posatha、upavasatha,‹upa近+vas住),【陽】布薩,齋戒日,遵守八戒(At the time of the rise of Buddhism the word had come to mean the day preceding four stages of the moon’s waxing and waning,viz.1st,8th,15th,23d nights of the lunar month that is to say,a weekly sacred day,a Sabbath.);佛教比丘每半個月(陰歷十五(full moon望日)與陰歷二九(或三十)(朔日)誦波羅提木叉戒與齋戒的日子)誦波羅提木叉(比丘守則)。uposathakamma,【中】布薩業,遵守布薩(戒)。uposathagga,【中】布薩堂(The hall or chapel in the monastery in which the Pāṭimokkha is recited (Vin.III,66))。aṭṭhaṅga-samannāgata uposatha﹐八關齋法(八支具足布薩(戒))。〈根本布薩經〉(A.III,70.Mūluposatha Sutta)記載,佛陀為毘舍佉詳細解釋牧牛者的布薩、尼乾外道的布薩、聖者的布薩三種布薩的不同。佛陀於此經開示,聖者的布薩是要藉由隨念如來、法、僧、戒、與天的修持,而使心清凈且斷煩惱。另外,在〈根本布薩經〉、〈布薩經〉Uposatha Sutta〈A.VIII,41〉與〈毘舍佉布薩經〉Visakhuposatha Sutta〈VIII,43〉,佛陀又為比丘與毘舍佉解釋,聖弟子如何成就八分布薩,而得大果與利益。求戒者向比丘念求受三皈依八戒文:Ahaṁ,bhante,tisaraṇena saddhiṁ uposatha-a??haṅgasīlaṁ dhammaṁ yācāmi.我 尊者 三皈依 與 布薩 八 | 支 | 戒 法 我乞求 阿亨 盤蝶 帝沙拉涅那 沙丁 烏婆沙它 阿它葛西囊 湯忙 亞遮咪 大德,我乞求三皈依和八戒法。(第二、三遍,念誦同文,或開頭加上︰Dutiyam’pi(第二遍),Tatiyam’pi(第三遍))正授八戒念誦文:1.Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi.有息者| 殺 離 學處 我受持 (pāṇā有息者+atipātā殺) atipāta “falling on to”; attack slaying 巴那帝巴大 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離殺生戒 )2.A-dinnādānā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi.不 給予+拿起(ādānā) 離 學處 我受持 阿地那他那 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離偷盜戒 )3.A-brahma-cariyā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 非 梵、凈 行為 離 學處 我受持 阿巴拉媽喳裏呀 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 我受持離非梵行戒)4.Musā-vādā veramaṇī sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 虛妄 語 離 學處 我受持 木沙哇他 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離妄語戒)5.Surā-meraya-majja-pamāda-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi.須羅酒 迷羅耶酒 烈酒 (令)放逸 (依)處 離 學處 我受持 穌拉 美拉呀 媽車 巴媽達 它那 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離飲酒戒)6.Vi-kāla-bhojanā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 非 時 食 離 學處 我受持 唯 卡了 婆喳那 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離非時食戒)7.Nacca-gīta-vādita-visūka-dassanā mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana- 舞蹈 唱歌 奏樂 戲劇 看 花鬘 薰香 塗油 受持 化妝 納這 吉得 哇地得 唯穌格 達色納 媽拉 幹得 唯累伯納 達臘納 曼他納vibhūsana-ṭṭhānā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 裝飾 處 離 學處 我受持 唯不色納 他那 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離跳舞、唱歌、奏樂、看戲,及離以花鬘、香水、塗油、化妝、裝飾戒。)8.Uccā-sayana-mahā-sayanā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi.高 床 大(=豪華) 床 離 學處 我受持 屋喳沙呀納 媽哈沙呀納 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密( 我受持離(坐臥)高床、大床戒。)受五戒者,第3條改念此條戒︰3.Kāmesu micchācārā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 淫欲 邪 | 行 離 學處 我受持 葛美舒 米恰遮拉 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離邪淫戒)受十戒者多念此條戒︰Jātarūpa-rajata-paṭiggahaṇā veramaṇī-sikkhāpadaṁ samādiyāmi. 金 銀 接受、拿取 離 學處 我受持 者搭魯巴 拉者搭 巴低葛哈那 唯臘媽尼 昔卡巴當 三媽地呀密 (我受持離金銀戒。)
巴利文-漢文佛學名相辭匯 翻譯:張文明
Uposatha:布薩
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
uposatha: uposatha(pu)
ဥေပါသထ(ပု)
«upa+usa+tha.upa+vasa+atha.nīti,dhā,184.,7.86.uposathakulejātattā uposatho,upagantvā arayo usatīti uposatho,tho.usa dāhe,upapubbo vasa nivāse vā,vasso.,ṭī.361»
[ဥပ+ဥသ+ထ။ ဥပ+ဝသ+အထ။ နီတိ၊ ဓာ၊ ၁၈၄။ ေမာဂ္၊၇။၈၆။ ဥေပါသထကုေလဇာတတၱာ ဥေပါသေထာ၊ ဥပဂႏ႖ာ အရေယာ ဥသတီတိ ဥေပါသေထာ၊ ေထာ။ ဥသ ဒါေဟ၊ ဥပပုေဗၺာ ဝသ နိဝါေသ ဝါ၊ ဝေႆာ။ ဓာန္၊ ဋီ။ ၃၆၁]
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
uposatha:lit.'fasting',i.e.'fasting day',is the full-moon day,the new-moon day,and the two days of the first and last moonquarters.On full-moon and new-moon days,the Disciplinary Code,the Pātimokkha,is read before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu),while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries,and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules (attha-sīlasikkhāpada).See A.VIII,41ff.
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
uposatha:[m.] Sabbath day; observance of 8 precepts; biweekly recitation of the Vinaya rules by a chapter of Buddhist monks.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Uposatha,[Vedic upavasatha,the eve of the Soma sacrifice,day of preparation].At the time of the rise of Buddhism the word had come to mean the day preceding four stages of the moon’s waxing and waning,viz.1st,8th,15th,23d nights of the lunar month that is to say,a weekly sacred day,a Sabbath.These days were utilized by the pre-Buddhistic reforming communities for the expounding of their views,Vin.I,101.The Buddhists adopted this practice and on the 15th day of the half-month held a chapter of the Order to expound their dhamma,ib.102.They also utilized one or other of these Up.days for the recitation of the Pāṭimokkha (pāṭimokkhuddesa),ibid.On Up.days laymen take upon themselves the Up.vows,that is to say,the eight Sīlas,during the day.See Sīla.The day in the middle of the month is called cātudassiko or paṇṇarasiko according as the month is shorter or longer.The reckoning is not by the month (māsa),but by the half-month (pakkha),so the twenty-third day is simply aṭṭhamī,the same as the eighth day.There is an accasional Up.called sāmaggi-uposatho,“reconciliation-Up.”,which is held when a quarrel among the fraternity has been made up,the Gen.confession forming as it were a seal to the reconciliation (Vin.V,123; Mah.42).-- Vin.I,111,112,175,177; II,5,32,204,276; III,164,169; D.III,60,61,145,147; A.I,205 sq.(3 uposathas:gopālaka°,nigaṇṭha°,ariya°),208 (dhamm°),211 (devatā°); IV,248 (aṭṭhaṅga-samannāgata),258 sq.(id.),276,388 (navah aṅgehi upavuttha); V,83; Sn.153 (pannaraso u); Vbh.422; Vism.227 (°sutta = A.I,206 sq.); Sdhp.439; DA.I,139; SnA 199; VvA.71,109; PvA.66,201.-- The hall or chapel in the monastery in which the Pāṭimokkha is recited is called uposathaggaṁ (Vin.III,66),or °āgāraṁ (Vin.I,107; DhA.II,49).The Up.service is called °kamma (Vin.I,102; V,142; J.I,232; III,342,444; DhA.I,205).uposathaṁ karoti to hold the Up.service (Vin.I,107,175,177; J.I,425).Keeping the Sabbath (by laymen) is called uposathaṁ upavasati (A.I,142,144,205,208; IV,248; see upavasati),or uposathavāsaṁ vasati (J.V,177).The ceremony of a layman taking upon himself the eight sīlas is called uposathaṁ samādiyati (see sīlaṁ & samādiyati); uposatha-sīla observance of the Up.(VvA.71).The Up.day or Sabbath is also called uposatha-divasa (J.III,52).(Page 150)
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera
Uposatha:1.Uposatha.-King,son of Varakalyāna and an ancestor of the Sākyan tribe.His son was Mandhātā (Dpv.iii.4).He was one of the kings at the beginning of the kappa (J.ii.311; iii.454).In the Dīgha Commentary (DA.i.258) he is given as the son of Varamandhātā and the father of Cara.In the northern texts he is called Uposadha.Mtu.i.348; Divy.210.

2.Uposatha.-The name of the Elephant-Treasure of the CakkavattiMahāsudassana.He was ”all white,sevenfold firm (sattappatittha),wonderful in power,flying through the sky.” (D.ii.174; M.iii.173f).In the Lalita Vistara his name is given as Bodhi.

Uposatha is also the name of a tribe of elephants,the ninth in a series of ten tribes,of ascending importance (DA.ii.573; UdA.403).It is said that a cakkavatti’s elephant belongs either to the Chaddanta tribe or to the Uposatha.If a Chaddanta elephant comes to a cakkavatti,it is the youngest of the tribe that comes,if an Uposatha elephant,then it will be the foremost (DA.ii.624; J.iv.232,234; KhA.172).When the cakkavatti dies,the elephant goes back to his fellows (DA.ii.635).The strength of an Uposatha elephant is equal to that of one thousand million men (BuA.37).In the Milindapañha (p.282),the king of the Uposatha elephants is described as being gentle and handsome,eight cubits in height and nine in girth and length,chewing signs of rut in three places on his body,all white,sevenfold-firm.Just as this elephant could never be put into a cow-pen or covered with a saucer,so could no one keep as slaves the children of Vessantara.

3.Uposatha.-Known as Uposatha-kumāra.The eldest of the ninety nine brothers of Samvara,king of Benares.When Samvara ascended the throne,his brothers protested and laid siege to his city; but Uposatha,having discovered by means of questions put to Samvara,that he was in character by far the best suited for kingship,persuaded the others to renounce their claims to the throne.Uposatha is identified with Sāriputta.J.iv.133ff.
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
UPOSATHA:[m] ngày bát quan trai giới,sự thọ trì tám giới,ngày đọc giới bổn Tỳ kheo trong nửa tháng một lần --kamma [nt] sự thọ trì bát quan trai hay tăng sự lễ phát lộ --agārā [nt] simā chỗ làm lễ phát lộ --thika [a] người thọ bát quan trai
Pali Viet Vinaya Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ về luật do tỳ khưu Giác Nguyên sưu tầm.
uposatha:hán dịch là trưởng tịnhthật ra đây là một thuật ngữ đã được dùng rộng rãi tại Ấn độ trước khi đức phật ra đời,chỉ chung những ngày trai tịnh kiêng khem của tín đồ các tôn giáo sau đó,chữ này được đức phật dùng để chỉ các ngày bát quan trai của cư sĩ và hai ngày bố tát của tăng ni vào hôm rằm và bữa cuối tháng ngoài ý nghĩa tịnh hóa giới hạnh bản thân mỗi tăng ni,nghi thức phát lộ hay bố tát còn là cơ hội để tăng ni xác định,siết chặt sự đoàn kết thông qua việc họp mặt nhau trên cùng một lễ đàn trong tự viện hay rừng sâu,sau hai lần tuyên ngôn với một chuẩn bị tối thiểu nhưng vừa có ý nghĩa tinh thần mà cũng rất thực dụng là một bầu nước sạch cùng một ngọn đèn được thắp sáng lễ đàn này chỉ gồm toàn các tỳ khưu thanh tịnh những vị đang chịu phạt và bất cứ ai chưa thọ giới cụ túc cũng không được tham dự tăng sự này ni chúng tuyệt đối không được góp mặt trong lễ bố tát của riêng tăng chúng những đối tượng bị đặt ngoài lễ bố tát của tăng ni được gọi chung là vajjanī+yapuggala (người bị loại trừ)ss
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
uposatha:ဥေပါသထ(ပု)
[ဥပ+ဥသ+ထ။ ဥပ+ဝသ+အထ။ နီတိ၊ ဓာ၊ ၁၈၄။ ေမာဂ္၊၇။၈၆။ ဥေပါသထကုေလဇာတတၱာ ဥေပါသေထာ၊ ဥပဂႏ႖ာ အရေယာ ဥသတီတိ ဥေပါသေထာ၊ ေထာ။ ဥသ ဒါေဟ၊ ဥပပုေဗၺာ ဝသ နိဝါေသ ဝါ၊ ဝေႆာ။ ဓာန္၊ ဋီ။ ၃၆၁]
(၁) ဥေပါသထဆင္မ်ိဳး။ (၂) ပါတိေမာက္-ရြတ္ဆို-ရြတ္ျပ-ျခင္း၊ ဥပုသ္ကံျပဳျခင္း၊ ဥပုသ္ကံ။ (၃) အ႒ဂၤသီလ (အဂၤါရွစ္ပါးရွိေသာ ဥပုသ္သီလ၊ ရွစ္ပါးသီလ။ (၄) ဥပုသ္-အ႒ဂၤသီလ ေစာင့္သုံးျခင္း။ (၅) ဥပုသ္ေန႔။ (၆) ဥေပါသထဆင္။ (တိ) (၇) ဥေပါသထမည္သူ။ (၁) ဥေပါသထဆင္မ်ိဳး။ ေထာင့္ကြင္းၾကည့္။ ဥေပါသထကုလ-ၾကည့္။ (၂) ပါတိေမာက္-ရြတ္ဆို-ရြတ္ျပ-ျခင္း၊ ဥပုသ္ကံ ျပဳျခင္း၊ ဥပုသ္ကံ။မူရင္းၾကည့္ပါ။
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
uposatha:ဥေပါသထ (ပ) (ဥပ√ဝသ္+အထ)
ရတနာသံုးပါးကို ဆည္းကပ္၍ သီတင္းသံုးျခင္း။ ရွစ္ပါးသီလကို ထိန္းျခင္း။ ပါတိေမာက္ကို ျပဳျခင္း (ပါတိေမာကၡဳေဒၵသ)။ ဥပုသ္။ ဥေပါသထဆင္။
ဥေပါသထတၳာယ၊ ဥပုသ္ျပဳျခင္းအက်ိဳးငွာ။ သာမဂၢီဥေပါသထ၊ ရဟန္းတို႔ တစ္ဖန္ သင့္ျမတ္ညီၫြတ္ေစေၾကာင္းျပဳေသာ ဥပုသ္။ တဒုေပါသေထ ပႏၷရေသ၊ တစ္ဆယ့္ငါးရက္ေျမာက္ေသာ ထိုဥပုသ္ေန႔၌။

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