Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
ud-:pref.[〃] 上的,外的,邪的.
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
ud-:pref.[〃] 上の,外の,邪なる.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Ud-,[Vedic ud-; Goth.ūt = Ohg.ūz = E.out,Oir.ud-; cp.Lat.ūsque “from-unto” & Gr.u(ζteros = Sk.uttara) prefix in verbal & nominal combn. One half of all the words beginning with u° are combns. with ud°,which in compn. appears modified according to the rules of assimilation as prevailing in Pāli.-- I.Original meaning “out in an upward direction”,out of,forth; like ummujjati to rise up out of (water),ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti to come out of & go up; ukkaṇṭha stretching one’s neck out high (cp.Ger.“empor”); uggilati to “swallow up”,i.e.spit out.-- The opposites of ud- are represented by either ava or (see under II.& IV.& cp.ucc-âvaca; uddhambhāgiya:orambhāgiya),ni (see below) or vi (as udaya:vi-aya or vaya).-- II.Hence develop 2 clearly defined meanings,viz.(1) out,out of,away from --:°aṇha (“day-out”); °agga (“top-out”); °āgacchati; °ikkhati look out for,expect; °kantati tear out; °khitta thrown off; °khipati pick out; °gacchati come out; °gamaṇa rising (opp.o°); °gajjati shout out; °gilati (opp.o°); °ghoseti shout out; °cināti pick out; °chiṭṭha thrown out; °jagghati laugh at,cp.Ger.aus-lachen °tatta smelted out; °tāna stretched out; °dāleti tear out; °dhaṭa lifted out,drawn out; °disati point out to; °drīyati pull out; °pajjati to be produced; °patti & °pāda coming out,origin,birth; °paṭipatiyā out of reach; °paḷāseti sound out; °phāsulika “ribs out”; etc.etc.-- (2) up (high) or high up,upwards,on to (cp.ucca high,uttara higher) --:°kujja erect (opp.ava°); °kūla sloping up (opp.vi°); °khipati throw-up,°gaṇhāti take up; °chindati cut up; °javati go up-stream,°javana id.(opp.o°); uñña pride; °thāna “standing up” °ṭhita got up; °tarati come out,go up (opp.o°); °nata raised up,high (opp.o°); °nama e-levation; °nāmin raised (opp.ni°); °patati fly up; etc.etc.-- III,More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative use) are:(1) ud° = without,“ex-”,e.g.unnaṅgala “outplough” = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex-bhikkhu.‹-› (2) ud° = off,i.e.out of the way,wrong,e.g.uppatha a wrong road,ummagga id.-- (3) ud° = out of the ordinary,i.e.exceedingly,e.g.ujjaṅgala extremely dusty; uppanduka very pale; uppoṭheti to beat hard.-- IV.Dialectical variations & combinations.-- (1) Owing to semantic affinity we often find an interchange between ud° and ava° (cp.E.break up = break down,grind up or down,tie up or down),according to different points of view.This wavering between the two prefixes was favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable tendency & had often been substituted for or replaced by ū,which in its place was reduced to u before a double consonant,thus doing away with the diff.between ū & u or o & u.For comparison see the foll.:ukkamati & okk°; uññā:avañña; uddiyati:odd°; uḍḍeyya oḍḍ°; uppīḷeti:opīḷ°; etc.,& cp.abbhokirati › abbhukkirati.-- (2) the most freq.combns. that ud° enters into are those with the intensifying prefixes abhi° and sam°; see e.g.abhi + ud (= abbhud°) + gacchati,°jalati; °ṭhāti; °namati etc.; sam + ud + eti; °kamati; °chindati; °tejeti; °pajjati etc.(Page 132)

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