Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Ta°,[Vedic tad,etc.; Gr.tόn tήn tό; Lat.is-te,tālis,etc.; Lith.tás tā; Goth.pata; Ohg.etc.daz; E.that] base of demonstr.pron.for nt.,in oblique cases of m.& f.,& in demonstr.adv.of place & time (see also sa).‹-› 1.Cases:Nom.sg.nt.tad (older) Vin.I,83; Sn.1052; Dh.326; Miln.25 & taṁ (cp.yaṁ,kiṁ) Sn.1037,1050; J.III,26; Acc.m.taṁ J.II,158,f.taṁ J.VI,368; Gen.tassa,f.tassā (Sn.22,110; J.I,151); Instr.tena,f.tāya (J.III,188); Abl.tasmā (J.I,167); tamhā Sn.291,1138; (J.III,26) & tato (usually as adv.) (Sn.390); Loc.tasmiṁ (J.I,278),tamhi (Dh.117); tahiṁ (adv.) (Pv.I,57) & tahaṁ (adv.) (J.I,384; VvA.36); pl.Nom.m.te (J.II,129),f.tā (J.II,127),nt.tāni (Sn.669,845); Gen.tesaṁ,f.tāsaṁ (Sn.916); Instr.tehi,f.tāhi (J.II,128); Loc.tesu,f.tāsu (Sn.670).-- In composition (Sandhi) both tad- & taṁ- are used with consecutive phonetic changes (assimilation),viz.(a) tad°:(a) in subst.function:tadagge henceforth D.I,93 taduṭṭhāya DhA.III,344; tadūpiya (cp.Trenckner,Notes 77,78=tadopya (see discussion under opeti),but cp.Sk.tadrūpa Divy 543 & tatrupāya.It is simply tad-upa-ka,the adj.‹-› positive of upa,of which the compar.-superlative is upama,meaning like this,i.e.of this or the same kind.Also spelt tadūpikā (f.) (at J.II,160) agreeing with,agreeable,pleasant Miln.9; tadatthaṁ to such purpose SnA 565.-- With assimilation:taccarita; tapparāyaṇa Sn.1114; tappoṇa (=tad-pra-ava-nata) see taccarita; tabbisaya (various) PvA.73; tabbiparīta (different) Vism.290; DhA.III,275; tabbiparītatāya in contrast to that Vism.450.-- (b) as crude form (not nt.) originally only in Acc.(nt.) in adj.function like tad-ahan this day,then felt as euphonic d,esp.in forms where similarly the euphonic t is used (ajja-t-agge).Hence ta- is abstracted as a crude (adverbial) form used like any other root in composition.Thus:tad-ah-uposathe on this day’s fast-day=to-day (or that day) being Sunday D.I,47; Sn.p.139 (expld as tam-ah-uposathe,uposatha-divase ti at SnA 502); tadahe on the same day PvA.46; tadahū (id.) J.V,215 (=tasmiṁ chaṇa-divase).tad-aṅga for certain,surely,categorical (orig.concerning this cp.kimaṅga),in tadaṅga-nibbuta S.III,43; tadaṅga-samatikkama Nd2 203; tadaṅga-vikkhambhana-samuccheda Vism.410; tadaṅga-pahāna DhsA.351; SnA 8; tadaṅgena A.IV,411.-- (b) tan°:(a) as subst.:tammaya (equal to this,up to this) Sn.846 (=tapparāyana Nd2 206); A.I,150.-- (b) Derived from Acc.use (like a b) as adj.is taṅkhaṇikā (fr.taṁ khaṇaṁ) Vin.III,140 (=muhuttikā).-- (g) a reduced form of taṁ is to be found as ta° in the same origin & application as ta-d- (under a b) in combn ta-y-idaṁ (for taṁidaṁ›taṁ-idaṁ›ta-idaṁ›ta-y-idaṁ) where y.takes the place of the euphonic consonant.Cp.in application also Gr.tou_to & tau_ta,used adverbially as therefore (orig.just that) Sn.1077; Pv.I,33; PvA.2,16 (=taṁ idaṁ),76.The same ta° is to be seen in tāhaṁ Vv 8315 (=taṁ-ahaṁ),& not to be confused with tāhaṁ=te ahaṁ (see tvaṁ).-- A similar combn is taṁyathā Miln.1 (this is how,thus,as follows) which is the Sk.form for the usual P.seyyathā (instead of ta-(y)--yathā,like ta-y-idaṁ); cp.Trenckner,P.M.p.75.-- A sporadic form for tad is tadaṁ Sn.p.147 (even that,just that; for tathaṁ?).-- II.Application:1.ta° refers or points back to somebody or something just mentioned or under discussion (like Gr.ou(=tos,Lat.hic,Fr.ci in voici,cet homme-ci,etc.):this,that,just this (or that),even this (or these).In this sense combd with api:te c’âpi (even these) Sn.1058.It is also used to indicate something immediately following the statement of the speaker (cp.Gr.o(/de,E.thus):this now,esp.in adv.use (see below); taṁ kiṁ maññasi D.I,60; yam etaṁ pañhaṁ apucchi Ajita taṁ vadāmi te:Sn.1037; taṁ te pavakkhāmi (this now shall I tell you:) Sn.1050; tesaṁ Buddho vyākāsi (to those just mentioned answered B.) Sn.1127; te tositā (and they,pleased ...) ib.1128.-- 2.Correlative use:(a) in rel.sentences with ya° (preceding ta°):yaṁ ahaṁ jānāmi taṁ tvaṁ jānāsi “what I know (that) you know” D.I,88; yo nerayikānaṁ sattānaṁ āhāro tena so yāpeti “he lives on that food which is (characteristic) of the beings in N.; or:whichever is the food of the N.beings,on this he lives” PvA.27.-- (b) elliptical (with omission of the verb to be) yaṁ taṁ=that which (there is),what (is),whatever,used like an adj.; ye te those who,i.e.all (these),whatever:ye pana te manussā saddhā ...te evam ahaṁsu ...“all those people who were full of faith said” Vin.II,195; yena tena upāyena gaṇha “catch him by whatever means (you like),” i.e.by all means J.II,159; yaṁ taṁ kayirā “whatever he may do” Dh.42.-- 3.Distributive and iterative use (cp.Lat.quisquis,etc.):...taṁ taṁ this & that,i.e.each one; yaṁ yaṁ passati taṁ taṁ pucchati whomsoever he sees (each one) he asks PvA.38; yaṁ yaṁ manaso piyaṁ taṁ taṁ gahetvā whatever ...(all) that PvA.77; yo yo yaṁ yaṁ icchati tassa tassa taṁ taṁ adāsi “whatever anybody wished he gave to him” PvA.113.So with adv.of ta°:tattha tattha here & there (freq.); tahaṁ tahaṁ id.J.I,384; VvA.36,187; tato tato Sn.390.-- (b) the same in disjunctivecomparative sense:taṁ ...taṁ is this so & is this so (too)=the same as,viz.taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīraṁ is the soul the same as the body (opp.aññaṁ j.a.s.) A.V,193,etc.(see jīva).-- 4.Adverbial use of some cases (locala,temporalb,& modalc):Acc.taṁ (a) there (to):tad avasari he withdrew there D.II.126,156; (b) taṁ enaṁ at once,presently (=tāvad-eva) Vin.I,127 (cp.Ved.enā); (c) therefore (cp.kiṁ wherefore,why),that is why,now,then:S.II,17; M.I,487; Sn.1110; Pv.I,23 (=tasmā PvA.11 & 103); II,716; cp.taṁ kissa hetu Nd2 on jhāna.-- Gen.tassa (c) therefore A.IV,333.‹-› Instr.tena (a) there (direction=there to),always in correl.with yena:where-there,or in whatever direction,here & there.Freq.in formula denoting approach to a place (often unnecessary to translate); e.g.yena Jīvakassa ambavanaṁ tena pāyāsi:where the Mangogrove of J.was,there he went=he went to the M.of J.D.I,49; yena Gotamo ten’upasaṅkama go where G.is D.I,88; yena āvasathâgāraṁ ten’upasaṅkami D.II,85 etc.; yena vā tena vā palāyanti they run here & there A.II,33; (c) so then,now then,therefore,thus (often with hi) J.I,151,279; PvA.60; Miln.23; tena hi D.II,2; J.I,266; III,188; Miln.19.-- Abl.tasmā (c) out of this reason,therefore Sn.1051,1104; Nd2 279 (=taṁ kāraṇaṁ); PvA.11,103; tato (a) from there,thence Pv.I,123; (b) then,hereafter PvA.39.-- Loc.tahiṁ (a) there (over there›beyond) Pv.I,57; (c) =therefore PvA.25; tahaṁ (a) there; usually repeated:see above II.3 (a).-- See also tattha,tathā,tadā,tādi,etc.(Page 291)

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