Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
saṅkhāra:m.[Sk.BSk.saṃskāra<saṃ-kṛ] 行,為作,(行為とその習慣カ),形成カ,現象.-āvasesasamāpatti 残行定.-upādānakkhandha 行取蘊.-upekkhā 行捨.-uppatti 行の生起.-kkhandha 行蘊.-gata 行の類.-dukkhatā 行苦性,行苦.-pariccheda 行の差別.-samatha行の止静,行の寂止.-samudaya 行の集.-suñña 行空.
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Saṅkhāra,【陽】 行,必要的條件,有條件的事物,心智的協同因素。~kkhandha,【陽】 行蘊,心智的協同因素集合體。 ~dukkha,【中】 行苦,物質生活的邪惡。 ~loka,【陽】 行世界,整個的創造。(p311)
Saṅkhāra,(saṁ+ kar(梵kr)行),【陽】行(直譯:一起作、共作、共作物),必要的條件,有條件的事物,生死(《長阿含十報法經》(T1.237.1)、一卷本《雜阿含經》(T2.496.2-3、498.3)、《佛說阿含正行經》(T2.883.2)、《佛說忠心經》(T17.550.3)、《阿含口解十二因緣經》(T25.55.2)…等,直接把行蘊譯成「生死」。)。saṅkhārakkhandha,【陽】行蘊。saṅkhāradukkha,【中】行苦。saṅkhāraloka,【陽】行世界,整個的創造(有為法)。M.A.44./II,364.︰Tattha kāyapaṭibaddhattā kāyena saṅkharīyati karīyati nibbattīyatīti kāyasaṅkhāro.Vācaṁ saṅkharoti karoti nibbattetīti vacīsaṅkhāro.Cittapaṭibaddhattā cittena saṅkharīyati karīyati nibbattīyatīti cittasaṅkhāro.
saṅkhāra: 心蘊的反應、心的造作、有意誌的行為、習性反應、業習
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
saṅkhāra:This term has,according to its context,different shades of meaning,which should be carefully distinguished.

(I) To its most frequent usages (s.foll.1-4) the general term 'formation' may be applied,with the qualifications required by the context.This term may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.

1.As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination,(paṭiccasamuppāda,q.v.),saṅkhāra has the active aspect,'forming,and signifies kamma (q.v.),i.e.wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity (cetanā) of body (kāya-s.),speech (vacī-s.) or mind (citta- or mano-s.).This definition occurs,e.g.at S.XII,2,27.For s.in this sense,the word 'kamma-formation' has been coined by the author.In other passages,in the same context, s. is defined by reference to (a) meritorious kamma-formations (puññābhisaṅkhāra),(b) demeritorious k.(apuññabhisaṅkhāra),(c) imperturbable k.(āneñjābhisaṅkhāra),e.g.in S.XII,51; D.33.This threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres of existence:the meritorious kamma-formations extend to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere,the demeritorious ones only to the sensuous sphere,and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.

2.The aforementioned three terms,kāya-vacī- and citta-s. are sometimes used in quite a different sense,namely as (1) bodily function,i.e.in-and-out-breathing (e.g.M.10),(2) verbal function,i.e.thought-conception and discursive thinking,(3) mental-function,i.e.feeling and perception (e.g.M.44).See nirodhasamāpatti

3.It also denotes the 4th group of existence (saṅkhārakkhandha),and includes all 'mental formations' whether they belong to 'kammically forming' consciousness or not.See khandha,Tab.II.and S.XXII,56,79.

4.It occurs further in the sense of anything formed (saṅkhata,q.v.) and conditioned,and includes all things whatever in the world,all phenomena of existence.This meaning applies,e.g.to the well-known passage,"All formations are impermanent...subject to suffering" (sabbe saṅkhāra aniccā ...dukkhā).In that context,however,s. is subordinate to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element (asaṅkhata-dhātu),i.e.Nibbāna (e.g.in sabbe dhammā anattā,"all things are without a self").

(II) Saṅkhāra also means sometimes 'volitional effort',e.g.in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi-pāda,q.v.); in sasaṅkhāra- and asaṅkhāra-parinibbāyī (s.Anāgāmī,q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms asaṅkhārika- (q.v.) and sasaṅkhārika-citta,i.e.without effort = spontaneously,and with effort = prompted.

In Western literature,in English as well as in German,saṅkhāra is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious tendencies' or similarly (e.g Prof Beckh:unterbewußte Bildekräfte," i.e.subconscious formative forces).This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature,and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Pāḷi Buddhism,as listed above under I,1-4.For instance,within the dependent origination,s.is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency,but is a fully conscious and active karmic volition.In the context of the 5 groups of existence (s.above I,3),a very few of the factors from the group of mental formations (saṅkhārakkhandha) are also present as concomitants of subconsciousness (s.Tab.I-III),but are of course not restricted to it,nor are they mere tendencies.
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
saṅkhāra:[m.] essential condition; a thing conditioned,mental coefficients.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Saṅkhāra,[fr.saṁ+kṛ,not Vedic,but as saṁskāra Epic & Class.Sk.meaning “preparation” and “sacrament,” also in philosophical literature “former impression,disposition,“ cp.vāsanā] one of the most difficult terms in Buddhist metaphysics,in which the blending of the subjective-objective view of the world and of happening,peculiar to the East,is so complete,that it is almost impossible for Occidental terminology to get at the root of its meaning in a translation.We can only convey an idea of its import by representing several sides of its application,without attempting to give a “word” as a def.trsln.-- An exhaustive discussion of the term is given by Franke in his Dīgha translation (pp.307 sq.,esp.311 sq.); see also the analysis in Cpd.273--276.-- Lit.“preparation,get up”; appld:coefficient (of consciousness as well as of physical life,cp.viññāṇa),constituent,constituent potentiality; (pl.) synergies,cause-combination,as in S.III,87; discussed,B.Psy.,p.50 sq.(cp.DhsA.156,where paraphrased in defn of sa-saṅkhāra with “ussāha payoga upāya paccaya-gahaṇa”); composition,aggregate.1.Aggregate of the conditions or essential properties for a given process or result -- e.g.(i.) the sum of the conditions or properties making up or resulting in life or existence; the essentials or “element” of anything (-°),e.g.āyusaṅkhāra,life-element D.II,106; S.II,266; PvA.210; bhavasaṅkhāra,jīvitasaṅkhāra,D.II,99,107.(ii.) Essential conditions,antecedents or synergy (co-ordinated activity),mental coefficients,requisite for act,speech,thought:kāya°,vacī°,citta°,or mano°,described respectively as “respiration,” “attention and consideration,” “percepts and feelings,” “because these are (respectively) bound up with,” or “precede” those M.I,301 (cp.56); S.IV,293; Kvu 395 (cp.trsln 227); Vism.530 sq.; DhsA.8; VbhA.142 sq.-- 2.One of the five khandhas,or constitutional elements of physical life (see khandha),comprising all the citta-sampayutta-cetasikā dhammā -- i.e.the mental concomitants,or adjuncts which come,or tend to come,into consciousness at the uprising of a citta,or unit of cognition Dhs.1 (cp.M.III,25).As thus classified,the saṅkhāra’s form the mental factor corresponding to the bodily aggregate or rūpakkhandha,and are in contrast to the three khandhas which represent a single mental function only.But just as kāya stands for both body and action,so do the concrete mental syntheses called saṅkhārā tend to take on the implication of synergies,of purposive intellection,connoted by the term abhisaṅkhāra,q.v.-- e.g.M.III,99,where saṅkhārā are a purposive,aspiring state of mind to induce a specific rebirth; S.II,82,where puññaṁ,opuñ‹-› ñaṁ,āṇeñjaṁ s.abhisaṅkharoti,is,in D.III,217 & Vbh.135,catalogued as the three classes of abhisaṅkhāra; S.II,39,360; A.II,157,where s.is tantamount to sañcetanā; Miln.61,where s.,as khandha,is replaced by cetanā (purposive conception).Thus,too,the ss.in the Paṭiccasamuppāda formula are considered as the aggregate of mental conditions which,under the law of kamma,bring about the inception of the paṭisandhiviññāṇa,or first stirring of mental life in a newly begun individual.Lists of the psychologically,or logically distinguishable factors making up the composite saṅkhārakkhandha,with constants and variants,are given for each class of citta in Dhs.62,etc.(N.B.-Read cetanā for vedanā,§ 338.) Phassa and cetanā are the two constant factors in the s-kkhandha.These lists may be compared with the later elaboration of the saṅkhāra-elements given at Vism.462 sq.-- 3.saṅkhārā (pl.) in popular meaning.In the famous formula (and in many other connections,as e.g.sabbe saṅkhārā) “aniccā vata saṅkhārā uppādavaya-dhammino” (D.II,157; S.I,6,158,200; II,193; Th.1,1159; J.I,392,cp.Vism.527),which is rendered by Mrs.Rh.D.(Brethren,p 385 e.g.) as “O,transient are our life’s experiences! Their nature ‘tis to rise and pass away,” we have the use of s.in quite a general & popular sense of “life,physical or material life”; and sabbe saṅkhārā means “everything,all physical and visible life,all creation.” Taken with caution the term “creation” may be applied as t.t.in the Paṭiccasamuppāda,when we regard avijjā as creating,i.e.producing by spontaneous causality the saṅkhāras,and saṅkhārā as “natura genita atque genitura” (the latter with ref.to the foll.viññāṇa).If we render it by “formations” (cp.Oldenberg’s “Gestaltungen,” Buddha 71920,p.254),we imply the mental “constitutional” element as well as the physical,although the latter in customary materialistic popular philosophy is the predominant factor (cp.the discrepancies of “life eternal” and “life is extinct” in one & the same European term).None of the “links” in the Paṭicca-samuppāda meant to the people that which it meant or was supposed to mean in the subtle and schematic philosophy (dhammā duddasā nipuṇā!) of the dogmatists.-- Thus saṅkhārā are in the widest sense the “world of phenomena” (cp.below °loka),all things which have been made up by pre-existing causes.-- At PvA.71 we find saṅkhārā in lit.meaning as “things” (preparations) in defn of ye keci (bhogā) “whatever.” The sabbe s.at S.II,178 (trsln “all the things of this world”) denote all 5 aggregates exhausting all conditioned things; cp.Kvu 226 (trsln “things”); Mhvs.IV,66 (:the material and transitory world); Dh.154 (vi-saṅkhāragataṁ cittaṁ=mind divested of all material things); DhsA.304 (trsln “kamma activities,” in connection avijjā-paccaya-s°); Cpd.211,n.3.-- The defn of saṅkhārā at Vism.526 (as result of avijjā & cause of viññāṇa in the P.-S.) is:saṅkhataṁ abhisaṅkharontī ti saṅkhārā.Api ca:avijjā-paccayā saṅkhārā saṅkhāra-saddena āgata-saṅkhārā ti duvidhā saṅkhārā; etc.with further def.of the 4 saṅkhāras.‹-› 4.Var.passages for saṅkhāra in general:D.II,213; III,221 sq.,M.II,223 (imassa dukkha-nidānassa saṅkhāraṁ padahato saṅkhāra-ppadhānā virāgo hoti); S.III,69 (ekanta-dukkhā saṅkhārā); IV,216 sq.(saṅkhārāṇaṁ khaya-dhammatā; id.with vaya°,virāga°,nirodha° etc.); Sn.731 (yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ sambhoti sabbaṁ saṅkhāra-paccayā; saṅkhārānaṁ nirodhena n’atthi dukkhassa sambhavo); Vism.453,462 sq.(the 51),529 sq.; DhA.III,264,379; VbhA.134 (4 fold),149 (3 fold),192 (āyūhanā); PvA.41 (bhijjana-dhammā).‹-› Of passages dealing with the saṅkhāras as aniccā vayadhammā anattā dukkhā etc.the foll.may be mentioned:Vin.I,13; S.I,200; III,24; IV,216,259; V,56,345; M.III,64,108; A.I,286; II,150 sq.; III,83,143; IV,13,100; It.38; Dh.277,383; Ps.I,37,132; II,48; 109 sq.; Nd2 444,450; also Nd2 p.259 (s.v.saṅkhārā).

--upekkhā equanimity among “things” Vism.161,162.--ûpasama allayment of the constituents of life Dh.368,381; cp.DhA.IV,108.--khandha the aggregate of (mental) coefficients D.III,233; Kvu 578; Tikp 61; DhsA.345; VbhA.20,42.--dukkha the evil of material life,constitutional or inherent ill VbhA.93 (in the classification of the sevenfold sukkha).--paccayā (viññāṇaṁ) conditioned by the synergies (is vital consciousness),the second linkage in the Paṭicca-samuppāda (q.v.) Vism.577; VbhA.152 sq.--padhāna concentration on the saṅkhāras M.II,223.--majjhattatā=°upekkhā VbhA.283.--loka the material world,the world of formation (or phenomena),creation,loka “per se,” as contrasted to satta-loka,the world of (morally responsible) beings,loka “per hominem” Vism.205; VbhA.456; SnA 442.(Page 664)
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
SAṄKHĀRA:[m] điều kiện tất yếu,vật cấu tạo,hệ số tinh thần,pháp hữu vi --kkhandha [m] hành uẩn --dukka [nt] sự khổ não về vật chất --loka [m] sự tạo hóa toàn diện trên vũ trụ
Pali Viet Abhidhamma Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ Vô Tỷ Pháp của ngài Tịnh Sự, được chép từ phần ghi chú thuật ngữ trong các bản dịch của ngài.
saṅkhāra:hành,hữu vi
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
saṅkhāra:သခၤါရ (ပ) (သံ√ကရ္+ဏ)
ေပါင္းစုျခင္း။ ျပဳျပင္စီရင္ျခင္း။ ျပဳျပင္စီရင္တတ္ေသာ အေၾကာင္းတရား။ ပုဗၺပေယာဂ။

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