Pāḷi Dictionary

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PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Rājā,(Rājan) [cp.Vedic rājā,n-stem.To root *reg,as in Lat.rego (to lead,di-rect,cp.in meaning Gr.h(gemw/n):see etym.under uju.Cp.Oir.rī king,Gallic Catu-rīx battle king,Goth reiks=Ohg.rīhhi=rich or Ger.reich.Besides we have *reig in Ags.r&amacremacr;cean= reach; Ger.reichen.-- The Dhtp only knows of one root rāj in meaning “ditti” i.e.splendour] king,a ruling potentate.The defn at Vin.III,222 is “yo koci rajjaṁ kāreti.” The fanciful etym.at D.III,93= Vism.419 is “dhammena pare rañjetī ti rājā” i.e.he gladdens others with his righteousness.-- At the latter passage the origin of kingly government is given as the third stage in the constitution of a people,the 2 preceding being mahā-sammata (general consent) and khattiya (the land-aristocrats).-- Cases.We find 3 systems of cases for the original Sk.forms,viz.the contracted,the diæretic and (in the pl.) a new formation with --ū-.Thus Gen.& Dat.sg.rañño [Sk.rājñaḥ] Vin.III,107; IV,157; J.II,378; III,5; Vv 744; and rājino Sn.299,415; Th.2,463; J.IV,495; Mhvs 2,14; Instr.sg.raññā Vin.III,43; J.V,444; DhA.I,164; PvA.22; VbhA.106; and rājinā [Sk.rajña] Mhvs 6,2; Acc.sg.rājānaṁ Vin.IV,157; Loc.raññe PvA.76; Voc.rāja Sn.422,423.pl.Nom.rājāno A.I,68; Gen.Dat.raññaṁ [Sk.rājñaṁ] D.II,87; Mhvs 18,32; and rājūnaṁ Vin.I,228; Ud.11; J.II,104; III,487; SnA 484; PvA.101,133; Instr.raññāhi A.I,279 rājūhi Ud.41; M.II,120; J.I,179; III,45; Mhvs 5,80; 8,21; and rājubhi D.II,258.Cp.Geiger,P.Gr.§ 921.-- 1.rājā is a term of sovereignship.The term rājā as used in Buddhist India does not admit of a uniform interpretation and translation.It is primarily an appellative (or title) of a khattiya,and often the two are used promiscuously.Besides,it has a far wider sphere of meaning than we convey by any trsln like “king” or even “sovereign,” or “prince.” We find it used as a designation of “king” in the sense of an elected or successory (crowned) monarch,but also in the meaning of a distinguished nobleman,or a local chieftain,or a prince with var.attributes characterizing his position according to special functions.From this we get the foll.scheme:(a) [based on mythological views:the king as representing the deity,cp.deva= king.Note that rājā never takes the place of deva in the meaning king,but that mahārāja is used in Voc.equivalent to deva] a world-king,over-lord,a so-called cakkavatti rājā.This is an office (as “Universal King”) peculiar to the Mahāpurisa or the (mythol.) “Great Man,” who may become either the Saviour of men in the religious sense,a Sammā-sambuddha,or a just Ruler of the earth in the worldly sense,a King of Righteousness.These are the 2 gatis of such a being,as described at var.places of the Canon (e.g.Sn.p.106; Sn.1002,1003; D.III,142; A.I,76).His power is absolute,and is described in the standard phrase “c.dhammiko dhamma-rājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariya-ppatto satta-ratana-samannāgato,” e.g.D.III,59.Dhammapāla gives the dignity of a C.as the first “human sovereign powers” (PvA.117).‹-› The four iddhi’s of a C.are given (quite crudely) at M.III,176:he is beautiful,lives longer than others,is of a healthier constitution than others,he is beloved by the brahmins and householders.Other qualities:how his remains should be treated=D.II,141; deserves a thūpa D.II,142 sq.; his four qualities D.II,145 (the 4 assemblies of khattiyas,brāhmaṇas,gahapatis & samaṇas are pleased with him).See under cakkavatti & ratana.-- In a similar sense the term dhamma-rājā is used as Ep.of the Buddha Sn.554 (rāj’âham asmi dh-.r.anuttaro); J.I,262; and a reflection of the higher sphere is seen in the title of politeness (only used in Voc.) mahārāja,e.g.Sn.416 (addressed to Bimbisāra) PvA.22 (id.); J.VI,515.-- (b) [in a larger constitutional state] the crowned (muddhâvasitta) monarch (i.e.khattiya) as the head of the principality or kingdom.The defn of this (general) rājā at Nd2 542 is significant of the idea of a king prevalent in early Buddhist times.It is:“khattiyo muddh’âbhisitto vijita-saṅgāmo nihata-paccāmitto laddh’adhippāyo paripuṇṇa-koṭthāgāro,” i.e.“a crowned noble,victorious in battle,slaying his foes,fulfilling his desires,having his storehouses full.” This king is “the top of men” (mukhaṁ manussānaṁ) Vin.I,246=Sn.568.Cp.D.I,7; Sn.46 (raṭṭhaṁ vijitam pahāya); J.V,448 and passim.See also below 3.4 & 6.-- In similes:see J.P.T.S.1907,128; & cp.Vism.152 (r.va saddh’antagato),336 (wishing to become an artisan).Here belongs the title of the king of the devas (Sakka) “deva-rājā,” e.g.DhA.III,269,441; PvA.62.-- (c) [in an oligarchic sense] member of a kula of khattiyas,e.g.the kumāras of the Sakiyans and Koliyans are all called rājāno of the rājakulānaṁ in J.V,413 sq.,or at least the heads of those kulas.Cp.B.Ind.p.19.-- (d) [in a smaller,autocratic state] a chieftain,prince,ruler; usually (collectively) as a group:rājāno,thus indicating their lesser importance,e.g.A.V,22 (kuḍḍa-rājāno rañño cakkavattissa anuyuttā bhavanti:so read for anuyantā); Sn.553 (bhoja° similar to rāja-bhoggā or bhogiyā as given at SnA 453); A.II,74 sq.(dhammikā & a°); J.IV,495.Similarly at Vin.I,228 we find the division into the 3 ranks:mahesakkhā rājāno,majjhimā r.,nīcā r.Here also belongs the designation of the 4 lokapālā (or Guardians of the World) at cattāro mahā-rājāno,the mahā° being added for sake of politeness (cp.Note A on mahā),e.g.A.IV,242.See also paṭirājā & cp.below 4 c.-- (e) A wider range of meaning is attached to several sub-divisions (with rājā or without):officials and men who occasionally take the place of the king (royal functionaries),but are by public opinion considered almost equal to the king.Here belongs the defn of what is termed “rājāno” (pl.like d) at Vin.III,47,viz.rājā,padesa-rājā,maṇḍalikā,antarabhogikā,akkhadassā,mahāmattā,ye vā pana chejjabhejjaṁ anusāsanti (i.e.those who have juridical power).See also below 4 b,and °putta,°bhogga [& other cpds.].-- 2.It would fill a separate book,if we were to give a full monograph of kingship in and after the Buddha’s time; we therefore content ourselves with a few principal remarks.The office of king was hereditary:kula-santakaṁ rajjaṁ J.I,395; II,116; IV,124; but we sometimes read of a king being elected with great pomp:J.I,470; PvA.74.He had the political and military power in his hand,also the jurisdiction,although in this he is often represented by the mahāmatta,the active head of the state.His 10 duties are mentioned at several places (see below under °dhammā).Others are mentioned e.g.at D.I,135,where it is said he gives food and seed-corn to the farmer,capital to the trader,wages to the people in government service.His qualifications are 8 fold (see D.I,137):well-born (“gentleman,” khattiya),handsome,wealthy,powerful (with his army),a believer,learned,clever,intelligent.‹-› His wealth is proverbial and is characterized in a stock phrase,which is also used of other ranks,like seṭṭhi’s & brāhmaṇa’s,viz.“aḍḍha mahaddhana mahābhoga pahūta-jātarūpa-rajata pahūta-vitt’ûpakaraṇa pahūtadhana-dhañña paripuṇṇa-kosa-koṭṭhāgāra,” e.g.D.I,134.For a late description of a king’s quality and distinction see Miln.226,227.-- His disciplinary authority is emphasized; he spares no tortures in punishing adversaries or malefactors,esp.the cora (see below 4 c).A summary example of these punishments inflicted on criminals is the long passage illustrating dukkha (bodily pain) at Nd2 304III; cp.M.III,163 (here also on a cora).-- 3.The king (rājā or khattiya) in the popular opinion,as reflected in language,heads several lists,which have often been taken as enumerating “castes,” but which are simply inclusive statements of var.prominent ranks as playing a rôle in the social life of the state,and which were formulated according to diff.occasions.Thus some show a more political,some a more religious aspect.E.g.khattiya amacca brāhmaṇa gahapati D.I,136; rājā brāhmaṇa gahapatika A.I,68,where another formula has khattiya br.g.A.I,66; J.I,217; and the foll.with an intermediate “rank” (something like “royalty,” “the royal household”) between the king and the brahmins:rājā rājaputtā brāhmaṇā gahapatikā negama-jānapadā A.II,74 sq.; rājāno rāja-mahāmattā khattiyā br.,gah.,titthiyā D.III,44 (trsln Dialogues too weak “rājas & their officials”); rājā rājabhogga br.,gah.Vin.III,221.-- 4.Var.aspects illustrating the position of the king in relation to other prominent groups of the court or populace:(a) rājā & khattiya.All kings were khattiyas.The kh.is a noble kat)e)coxήn (cp.Gr.h(gemw/n) as seen fr.defn jāti-khattiya at SnA 453 and var.contexts.Already in the Rig Veda the kṣatriya is a person belonging to a royal family (RV X.109,3),and rājanya is an Ep.of kṣatriya (see Zimmer,Altindisches Leben 213).--rājā khattiyo muddhâvassito “a crowned king” D.I,69; III,61 sq.; Vin.IV,160; A.I,106 sq.; II,207 (contrasted with brāhmaṇa mahāsāla); III,299 (if lazy,he is not liked by the people); M.III,172 sq.(how he becomes a cakkavatti through the appearance of the cakka-ratana).-- Without muddhâvasitta:rājāno khattiyā Dh.294=Nett 165.Cp.khattiyā bhoja-rājāno the khattiyas,the (noble or lesser?) kings (as followers of the cakkavatti) Sn.553 (see bhoja).At J.VI,515.rājāno corresponds directly to khattiyā on p.517 (saṭṭhisahassa°); cp.expression khattiya-kula J.I,217 as equivalent to rāja-kula.(b) rājā & mahāmatta.The latter occupies the position of “Premier,” but is a rank equal to the king,hence often called rājā himself:Vin.III,47 where styled “akkhadassa mahāmatta.” Otherwise he is always termed rāja-mahāmatta “royal minister,” or “H.R.H.the Premier,” e.g.Vin.I,172; A.I,279; Vin.I,228 (also as Magadha-mahāmatta),and called himself a khattiya D.III,44.-- (c) rājā & cora.A prominent figure in the affairs of State is the “robber-chief” (mahā-cora).The contrast-pair rajāno (so always pl.) & cora is very frequent,and in this connection we have to think of rājāno as either smaller kings,knights or royals (royalists),i.e.officers of the kings or “the king’s Guards.” Thus at J.III,34 the C.expln as rāja-purisā.It is here used as a term of warning or frightening “get up,robber,so that the kings (alias “policeman” ) won’t catch you”:uṭṭhehi cora mā taṁ gahesuṁ rājāno.Other passages are e.g.:D.I,7 (rāja-kathā & corakathā)=Vin.I,188; M.III,163 (rājāno coraṁ āgucāriṁ gahetvā); A.I,68,154; It.89 (rāj’âbhinīta+cor°); & in sequence rājāno corā dhuttā (as being dangerous to the bhikkhus) at Vin.I,150,161.-- 5.On the question of kingship in Ancient India see Zimmer,Altind.Leben pp.162--175,212 sq.; Macdonell & Keith,Vedic Index II.210 sq.; Fick,Soc.Gl.63--90; Foy,Die Königl.Gewalt nach den altind.Rechtsbüchern (Leipzig 1895); Rh.Davids,Buddhist India pp.1--16; Hopkins,E.W.,The social and military position of the ruling caste in A.I.in J.A.O.S.13,179 sq.; Banerjea,Public Administration in A.I.1916,pp.63--93.-- 6.Kings mentioned by name [a very limited & casual list only,for detailed refs.see Dict’y of Names]:Ajātasattu; Udena (DhA.I,185); Okkāka; Dīghī (of Kosala; Vin.I,342); Parantapa (of Kosambī; DhA.I,164;) Pasenadi (of Kosala; D.I,87,103; Vin.IV,112,157); Bimbisāra (of Magadha; Vin.IV,116 sq.; Sn.419); Bhaddiya; etc.-- 7.(fig.) king as sign of distinction (“princeps”),as the lion is called rājā migānaṁ Sn.72; Vism.650; the Himavant is pabbata-rājā A.I,152; III,44; and Gotama’s horse Kaṇthaka is called assa-rājā J.I,62=VvA.314.-- Note.The compn form of rājā is rāja°

--âgāra a king’s (garden- or pleasure-) house D.I,7 (°ka); DA.I,42.--aṅga royal mark,characteristic or qualification; king’s property Vin.I,219 (rājaṅgaṁ hatthī:the elephants belong to the king),cp.A.I,244:assājāniyo rañño aṅgan t’eva saṅkhaṁ gacchati is called king’s property.--aṅgana royal court PvA.74.--āṇatti king’s permission Tikp 26 (in simile).--āṇā (1) the king’s command J.III,180; cp.PvA.217 “rañño āṇā”; (2) the king’s fine or punishment,i.e.a punishment inflicted by the king (cp.Fick,Soc.Gl.74),synonymous with rāja-daṇḍa:J.I,369,433 (rājāṇaṁ karoti to inflict); II,197; III,18,232,351; IV,42; VI,18; PvA.242.--ânubhāva king’s power,majesty,authority,pomp J.IV,247; PvA.279.--antepura the royal harem A.V,81,82 (the 10 risks which a bhikkhu is running when visiting it for alms).--âbhinīta brought by a king It.89 (+corâbhinīta).--âbhirājā “king of kings” Sn.553; DhsA.20.--âmacca royal minister J.V,444 (°majjhe).--āyatana N.of a tree:“Kingstead tree,” the royal tree (as residence of a king of fairies),Buchanania latifolia Vin.I,3 sq.(where MVastu III,303 reads kṣīrikā,i.e.milk-giving tree); J.I,80; IV,361 sq.; DhsA.35; VbhA.433 (°cetiya).--iddhi royal power PvA.279.--isi a royal seer,a king who gives up his throne & becomes an ascetic (cp.Sk.rājarṣi,freq.in Mhbhārata & Rāmā yana) Th.1,1127 (read rāja-d-isi); It.21 (rājīsayo,with var vv.ll.not quite the same meaning); J.VI,116,124,127,518; DhA.IV,29.Kern,Toev.s.v.proposes reading rājīsi --upaṭṭhāna attendance on the king,royal audience Vin.I,269; J.I,269,349; III,119,299; IV,63.--ûpabhoga fit for use by the king Miln.252.--uyyāna royal garden or pleasure ground J.III,143; Mhvs 15,2.--orodhā a lady from the king’s harem,a royal concubine Vin.IV,261.--kakudha-bhaṇḍa an ensign of royalty (5:khagga,chatta,uṇhīsa,pādukā,vālavījanī) DhA.I,356.See under kakudha.--kathā talk about kings (as tiracchānakathā in disgrace),combd with corakathā (see above 4 c) D.I,7; III,36,54; Vin.I,188.--kammika a royal official,one employed by the king J.I,439; IV,169.--kuṭumba the king’s property J.I,439.--kuṇḍa a “crook of a king” DhA.III,56.--kumāra a (royal) prince (cp.khattiya-kumāra) Vin.I,269; J.III,122; VbhA.196 (in comparison).--kumbhakāra a “royal potter,” i.e.a potter being “purveyor to the king” J.V,290.--kula the king’s court or palace A.I,128; II,205; Vin.IV,265; J.II,301; DhA.II,44,46; III,124.--khādāya puṭṭha at Sn.831 is according to Kern,Toev.to be read as rajakkhatāya ph.(fr.rajakkha).The old Niddesa,however,reads °khādāya & explns the word (Nd1 171) by rājabhojanīyena,i.e.the king’s food,which is alright without being changed.--guṇa “virtue of a king” M.I,446 (trick of a circus horse; +rāja-vaṁsa).--daṇḍa punishment ordered by the king PvA.216,217.--dāya a royal gift D.I,127; DA.I,246.--dūta king’s messenger Sn.411,412; in meaning of “message,” i.e.calling somebody to court,summons at J.II,101,305.--dhamma “king’s rule,” i.e.rule of governing,norm of kingship; usually given as a set of 10,which are enumd at J.III,274 as “dāna,sīla,pariccāga,ajjava,maddava,tapo,akkodha,avihiṁsā,khanti,avirodhana,” i.e.alms-giving,morality,liberality,straightness,gentleness,self-restriction,non-anger,non-hurtfulness,forbearance non-opposition.These are referred to as dasa rājadhammā at J.I,260,399; II,400; III,320; V,119,378; usually in phrase “dasa rāja-dhamme akopetvā dhammena rajjan kāresi”:he ruled in righteousness,not shaking the tenfold code of the king.Another set of 3 are mentioned at J.V,112,viz.“vitathaṁ kodhaṁ hāsaṁ nivāraye” (expld as giving up musāvāda,kodha & adhamma-hāsa).--dhānī a royal city (usually combd with gāma & nigama) A.I,159; II,33; III,108; Vin.III,89; J.V,453; Pv 1318--dhītā king’s daughter,princess J.I,207; PvA.74.--nivesana the king’s abode,i.e.palace DhA.IV,92.--parisā royal assembly Vin.II,296.--pīla (?) DhA.I,323.--putta lit.“king’s son,” prince,one belonging to the royal clan (cp.similarly kulaputta),one of royal descent,Rājput Sn.455; Miln.331; VbhA.312,319 (in simile); PvA.20.f.°puttī princess J.IV,108; V,94.--purisa “king’s man,” only in pl.°purisā the men of the king,those in the king’s service (as soldiers,body-guard,policeman etc.) J.III,34; VbhA.80 (°ânubandha-corā),109.--porisa (m.& nt.) servant of the king,collectively:king’s service,those who devote themselves to Govt.service D.I,135; M.I,85=Nd2 199; A.IV,281,286.See also porisa --bali royal tax J.I,354.--bhaṭa king’s hireling or soldier Vin.I,74,88; SnA 38 (in simile) --bhaya fear of the king(‘s punishment) Vism.121.--bhāga the king’s share J.II,378.--bhogga 1.royal,in the service of the king,in foll.phrases:rāja-bhoggaṁ raññā dinnaṁ rāja-dāyaṁ brahma-deyyaṁ D.I,87,of a flourishing place.Dial.I.108 trsls “with power over it as if he were king,” and expls with:“where the king has proprietary rights.” The C.rather unmeaningly expls as “rāja-laddha” (DA.I,245).The BSk.has a curious version of this phrase:“rājñā-agni- dattena brahmadeyyaṁ dattaṁ” (given by the king in the place of agni?) Divy 620.-- Further at Vin.III,221 in sequence rājā r-bhogga,brāhmaṇa,gahapatika,where the C.expls (on p.222) as “yo koci rañño bhatta-vetan’āhāro.” (We should be inclined to take this as No.2.) -- Thirdly,in stock phrase “rājâraha rājabhogga rañño aṅgan t’eva saṅkhaṁ gacchati,” i.e.worthy of a king,imperial,he justifies the royal qualification,said of a thoroughbred horse at A.I,244= II.113; of a soldier (yodh’ājīva) at A.I,284; of an elephant at J.II,370 (where it is expld as “rāja paribhoga”).Also as “royal possessions” in general at DhA.I,312.13.-- Fick,Soc.Gl.99 does not help much,he takes it as “king’s official.” -- 2.royal,of royal power,one entitled to the throne.Either as bhogga,bhogiya (SnA 453) or (khattiyā) bhoja-rājāno (Sn.553).Thus at Vin.III,221,where it takes the place of the usual khattiya “royal noble” & Sn.553,where it is combd (as bhoja rājano) with khattiyā.See also bhoja & cp.(antara) bhogika and rājañña --mahāmatta king’s prime minister (see above 4 b,to which add:) D.III,44; A.I,154,252,279; III,128; VbhA.312 (simile of 2),340.--mālakāra royal gardener J.V,292.--muddā the royal seal DhA.I,21.--muddikā id.SnA 577.--ratha the king’s chariot DhA.III,122.--rukkha “royal tree,” Cathartocarpus fistula VvA.43.--vara the best king,famous king Vv 321 (=Sakka VvA.134).--vallabha the king’s favourite,or overseer Mhvs 37,10; VbhA.501 (in simile).--vibhūti royal splendour or dignity PvA.216,279.--haṁsa “royal swan,” a sort of swan or flamingo Vism.650 (suvaṇṇa°,in simile).(Page 568)
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera
Rājā:A Yakkha,one of the messengers of Kuvera.D.iii.201; DA.iii.967.
Pali-Dictionary Vipassana Research Institute
rājā:A king; a prince,ruler,governor
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
rājā:ရာဇာ (ပ) (√ရာဇ္)
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