Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

巴英術語匯編 《法的醫療》附 溫宗堃
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
paramattha,(-sacca-vacana-desanā):'truth (or term,exposition) that is true in the highest (or ultimate) sense',as contrasted with the 'conventional truth' (vohāra-sacca),which is also called 'commonly accepted truth' (sammuti-sacca; in Skr:samvrti-satya).The Buddha,in explaining his doctrine,sometimes used conventional language and sometimes the philosophical mode of expression which is in accordance whith undeluded insight into reality.In that ultimate sense,existence is a mere process of physical and mental phenomena within which,or beyond which,no real ego-entity nor any abiding substance can ever be found.Thus,whenever the Suttas speak of man,woman or person,or of the rebirth of a being,this must not be taken as being valid in the ultimate sense,but as a mere conventional mode of speech (vohāra-vacana).

It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka,in distinction from most of the Sutta Piṭaka,that it does not employ conventional language,but deals only with ultimates,or realities in the highest sense (paramattha-dhammā).But also in the Sutta Piṭaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate language (paramattha-desanā),namely,wherever these texts deal with the groups (khandha),elements (dhātu) or sense-bases (āyatana),and their components; and wherever the 3 characteristics (ti-lakkhaṇa,q.v.) are applied.The majority of Sutta texts,however,use the conventional language,as appropriate in a practical or ethical context,because it "would not be right to say that 'the groups' (khandha) feel shame,etc."

It should be noted,however,that also statements of the Buddha couched in conventional language,are called 'truth' (vohāra-sacca),being correct on their own level,which does not contradict the fact that such statements ultimately refer to impermanent and impersonal processes.

The two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form only in the commentaries,but are implied in a Sutta-distinction of 'explicit (or direct) meaning' (nītattha,q.v.) and 'implicit meaning (to be inferred)' (neyyattha).Further,the Buddha repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using conventional speech,e.g.in D.9:These are merely names,expressions,turns of speech,designations in common use in the world,which the Perfect Qne (Tathāgata) uses without misapprehending them." See also S.I.25.

The term paramattha,in the sense here used,occurs in the first para.of the Kathāvatthu,a work of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka (s.Guide,p.62).(App:vohāra).

The commentarial discussions on these truths (Com.to D.9 and M.5) have not yet been translated in full.On these see K N.Jayatilleke,Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (London,1963),pp.361ff.

In Mahāyana,the Mādhyamika school has given a prominent place to the teaching of the two truths.
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
paramattha:[m.] the highest ideal; truth in the ultimate sense.
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
paramattha:ပရမတၳ (ပ) (ပရမ+အတၳ)
ျမတ္ေသာအက်ိဳး။ ျမတ္ေသာအနက္သေဘာ။ မေဖာက္ျပန္ေသာ သေဘာတရား။

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