Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

増補改訂パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
paṭiccasamuppāda:m.[BSk.pratītyasamutpāda]缘起,缘起の道理,缘起の法.-aṅga缘起支.-kusala缘起に巧みな.-kusalatā缘起善巧.-naya缘起法.-niddesa缘起の解释
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
paṭiccasamuppāda:緣起。即凡是存在之法皆是由諸緣和合生起之義。
《清凈道論》對“緣起”作了幾種解釋:
1.因為現觀它能導致利益和快樂,所以值得智者們了解(paccetuṃ)它故為“緣”(paṭicca);生起時是一起(saha)和完全(sammā)生起(uppajjati),而非單獨,也非無因,故為“起”(samuppāda)。如此,由緣和生起為“緣起”。
2.一起生起為“起”,眾緣的和合而非排斥緣,如此為“緣起”。由此因的組合為緣,[作為]彼[果的]緣故。
3.如是因的組合面向[果]故說為緣,一起生起故說為起。果是由它共同達成、而非缺乏的意思;又以諸條件的和合,彼此面向、前往[果]故為緣。它們乃是一起、彼此以不分離之法而生起,故說為起。如此,緣和生起為“緣起”。
4.若它們不互相為緣,或互相欠缺時,[果]則不可能生起。因為諸緣是同時、一起,而非各別各別,也非先後地生起諸法,故說為緣起。(Vm.577-9)
佛陀宣說緣起著重在說明導致生命諸苦的原因。生命不是無因的,也不是由大自在天、上帝等所創造的,它是由一系列的諸緣和合而產生的。
在經典中,佛陀通常以十二個環節來解釋緣起(十二緣起支):“諸比庫,什麼是緣起呢?諸比庫,無明緣行,行緣識,識緣名色,名色緣六處,六處緣觸,觸緣受,受緣愛,愛緣取,取緣有,有緣生,生緣老、死、愁、悲、苦、憂、惱生起。如此,這整個苦蘊生起。諸比庫,這稱為緣起。”(S.2.1.1)
《巴漢詞典》明法尊者增訂
Paṭiccasamuppāda,【陽】緣起(即因緣法)。Vism.520-1.:So hi yasmā patīyamāno hitāya sukhāya ca saṁvattati,tasmā paccetumarahanti naṁ paṇḍitāti paṭicco. Uppajjamāno ca saha sammā ca uppajjati,na ekekato,nāpi ahetutoti samuppādo. Evaṁ paṭicco ca so samuppādo cāti paṭiccasamuppādo.Apica saha uppajjatīti samuppādo,paccayasāmaggiṁ pana paṭicca apaccakkhāyāti evampi paṭiccasamuppādo.(此緣起,因為了解它有助於利益和幸福,故智者值得去領解(paccetum),是名為「緣」(paṭicca﹐pacceti=paṭi+ī;pacceti it=paṭicca),生起之時,是俱(saha)(生起uppajjati)而非單獨,是正(sammā)生起(uppajjati)而非無因,是名為「起」(samuppādo)。)《俱舍論》:「此中緣起(pratityasamutpāda)是何句義?鉢刺底(prat)是至義。醫底(itya)界是行義,由先助力界義轉變,故行由至轉變成緣。參(sam)是和合義。嗢(ut)是上升義。鉢地(pāda)界是有義,有藉合升轉變成起,由此有法至於緣已和合升起,是緣起義。」(T29.50.1) S.12.20./II,25~27.(cf.《雜阿含296經》)說「緣起」:ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idappaccayatā(此(法)住於界,法住、法決定性,即是此緣性)SA.12.20.:ṭhitāva sā dhātūti ṭhitova so paccayasabhāvo,na kadāci jāti jarāmaraṇassa paccayo na hoti.(此(法)住於界:它住立於因緣的自性,不會某時沒有生緣老死(等)。)Dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatāti imehipi dvīhi paccayameva katheti.Paccayena hi paccayuppannā dhammā tiṭṭhanti,tasmā paccayova “dhammaṭṭhitatā”ti vuccati.Paccayo dhamme niyameti,tasmā “dhammaniyāmatā”ti vuccati.(法住、法決定性:具有這兩種因緣論,的確,以因緣、已再生緣,從此因緣,法住性。在法上緣的確定,稱為決定性。) Idappaccayatāti imesaṁ jarāmaraṇādīnaṁ paccayā idappaccayā,idappaccayāva idappaccayatā.( 此緣性:這些老死等諸緣的此緣,以此緣稱為此緣性。)。《瑜伽師地論》:「無始時來展轉安立,名為法性。由現在世(因果次第),名為法住。由過去世(因果次第),名為法定。由未來世(因果次第),名法如性。」(T30.833.1) 緣起偈(見S.12.37.、S.12.61.~62、S.55.28.):‘Iti imasmiṁ sati idaṁ hoti,imassuppādā idaṁ uppajjati; imasmiṁ asati idaṁ na hoti,imassa nirodhā idaṁ nirujjhati.’ (「此有故彼有」(在此存在時,彼變成),「此生故彼生」(由於此的被生,彼被生);「此無故彼無」(在此無存在時,彼無有),「此滅故彼滅」(由於此的滅,彼被滅)。) Abs.:tabbhāvabhāvībhāvākāramattopalakkhito paṭiccasamuppādanaya,( ‹ taṁ+ bhāva+ bhāvī+ bhāva+ ākāra+ matta + upalakkhito)﹐緣起(的方)法是:「依靠其它法,而有為法純粹只是發生」,而被賦予特性。(tabbhāva,其他的法,bhāvī(將成為的法)有為法,bhāvākāramatta純粹只是發生,upalakkhito,被賦予特性、辨別;paṭiccasamuppāda,緣起,nayo,方法)。S.12.2./II,2.︰“Katamo ca,bhikkhave,paṭiccasamuppādo? Avijjāpaccayā,bhikkhave,saṅkhārā; saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ; viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ; nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ; saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso; phassapaccayā vedanā; vedanāpaccayā taṇhā; taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ; upādānapaccayā bhavo; bhavapaccayā jāti jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti.Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.(無明緣行(以‘無明’為緣生起‘諸行’),行緣識(以‘諸行’為緣生起‘識’),識緣名色(以‘識’為緣生起‘名色’),名色緣六入(以‘名色’為緣生起‘六入’),六入緣觸(以‘六入’為緣生起‘觸’),觸緣受(以‘觸’為緣生起‘受’),受緣愛(以‘受’為緣生起‘愛’),愛緣取(以‘愛’為緣生起‘取’),取緣有(以‘取’為緣生起‘有’),有緣生(以‘有’為緣生起‘生’),以‘生’為緣而生起‘老與死、愁、悲、苦、憂、惱’,這樣這是全部苦蘊的集。就是因為無明滅無余而行滅,因為諸行滅而識滅,因為識滅而名色滅,因為名色滅而六入滅,因為六入滅而觸滅,因為觸滅而受滅,因為受滅而愛滅,因為愛滅而取滅,因為取滅而有滅,因為有滅而生滅,因為生滅而老死、愁、悲、苦、憂、惱滅,這樣這是一切苦蘊的滅。)
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
paṭiccasamuppāda: paṭiccasamuppāda(pu)
ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါဒ(ပု)
[paṭicca+samuppāda(saṃ+u+pada+ṇa).sāmaggiaṅgānaṃ aññamaññena paṭimukhaṃ ito gatoti katvā paṭiccoti vuccati.svāyaṃ sahiteyeva aññamaññaṃ avinibbhogavuttidhamme uppādetīti samuppādotipi vutto.evampi paṭicco ca so samuppādo cāti paṭiccasamuppādo.visuddhi,2.152.paṭicca samuppajjati phalaṃ etasmāti paṭiccasamuppādo.padadvayenapi dhammānaṃ paccayaṭṭho eva vibhāvito.ma,ṭī,2.131.saṃ,ṭī,1.23va.paṭicca samuppajjati saṅkhārādikaṃ etasmāti hi paṭiccasamuppādo,paccekaṃ avijjādiko paccayadhammo.anuṭī,3.3.]
[ပဋိစၥ+သမုပၸါဒ(သံ+ဥ+ပဒ+ဏ)။ သာမဂၢိအဂၤါနံ အညမေညန ပဋိမုခံ ဣေတာ ဂေတာတိ ကတြာ ပဋိေစၥာတိ ဝုစၥတိ။ သြာယံ သဟိေတေယဝ အညမညံ အဝိနိေဗ႓ာဂဝုတၱိဓေမၼ ဥပၸါေဒတီတိ သမုပၸါေဒါတိပိ ဝုေတၱာ။ ဧဝမၸိ ပဋိေစၥာ စ ေသာ သမုပၸါေဒါ စာတိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ။ ဝိသုဒၶိ၊၂။၁၅၂။ ပဋိစၥ သမုပၸဇၨတိ ဖလံ ဧတသၼာတိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ။ ပဒဒြေယနပိ ဓမၼာနံ ပစၥယေ႒ာ ဧဝ ဝိဘာဝိေတာ။ မ၊ဋီ၊၂။၁၃၁။သံ၊ ဋီ၊၁။၂၃ဝ။ ပဋိစၥ သမုပၸဇၨတိ သခၤါရာဒိကံ ဧတသၼာတိ ဟိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ၊ ပေစၥကံ အဝိဇၨာဒိေကာ ပစၥယဓေမၼာ။ အႏုဋီ၊၃။၃။]
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
paṭiccasamuppāda:'dependent origination',is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena,a doctrine which,together with that of impersonality (anattāq.v.),forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha.It shows the conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of manifold physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego,or man,or animal,etc.

Whereas the doctrine of impersonality,or anattā,proceeds analytically,by splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent parts,into mere empty,unsubstantial phenomena or elements,the doctrine of dependent origination,on the other hand,proceeds synthetically,by showing that all these phenomena are,in some way or other,conditionally related with each other.In fact,the entire Abhidhamma Piṭaka,as a whole,treats really of nothing but just these two doctrines:phenomenality - implying impersonality and conditionality of all existence.The former or analytical method is applied in Dhammasaṅganī,the first book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka; the latter or synthetical method,in Paṭṭhāna,the last book of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka.For a synopsis of these two works,s.Guide I and VII.

Though this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors,by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination,and even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.

The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:

1.Avijiā-paccayā saṅkhārā:Through ignorance are conditioned the saṅkh

āras," i.e.the rebirth-producing volitions (cetanā),or 'kamma-formations' .

2.Saṅkhāra-paccayā viññāṇaṃ:Through the kamma-formations (in the past life) is conditioned consciousness (in the present life)."

3.Viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpaṃ:Through consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena (nāma-rūpa)," i.e.that which makes up our so-called individual existence.

4.Nāma-rūpa-paccayā saḷāyatanaṃ:Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases," i.e.the 5 physical sense-organs,and consciousness as the sixth.

5.Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso:Through the six bases is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression."

6.Phassa-paccayā vedanā:Through the impression is conditioned feeling."

7.Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā:Through feeling is conditioned craving."

8.Taṇhā-paccayā upādānaṃ:Through craving is conditioned clinging."

9.Upādāna-paccayā bhavo:Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming," consisting in the active and the passive life process,i.e.the rebirth-producing kamma-process (kamma-bhava) and,as its result,the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).

10.Bhava-paccayā jāti:Through the (rebirth-producing kamma-) process of becoming is conditioned rebirth."

11.Jāti-paccayā jarā maraṇaṃ,etc.:Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death (sorrow,lamentation,pain,grief and despair).Thus arises this whole mass of suffering again in the future."



The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three successive lives:

PAST1 Ignorance (avijjā
2 Kamma-formations
saṅkhārā
Kamma-Process
kammabhava
5 causes:
1,2,8,9,10
PRESENT3 Consciousness
viññāṇa
4 Mind & Matter
nāma-rūpa
5 Six Bases (āyatana
6 Impression (phassa
7 Feeling (vedanā
Rebirth-Process
upapattibhava
5 results:3-7
8 Craving (taṇhā
9 Clinging(upādāna
10 Process of Becoming
bhava
Kamma-Process
kammabhava
5 causes:
1,2,8,9,10
FUTURE11 Rebirth (jāti
12 Old Age and Death
jarā-maraṇa
Rebirth-Process
upapattibhava
5 results:3-7

Before taking up the study of the following exposition,it is suggested that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions (s.paccaya).For a thorough understanding of the paṭiccasamuppāda he should know the main modes of conditioning,as decisive support,co-nascence,pre-nascence,etc.

For a closer study of the subject should be consulted:Vis.M.XVII; Fund.III; Guide (Ch.VII and Appendix); Dependent Origination,by Piyadassi Thera (WHEEL 15); The Significance of Dependent Origination (WHEEL 140).



(1.) "Through ignorance are conditioned the kamma-formations" (avijjā-paccayā saṅkhārā),i.e.all wholesome and unwholesome actions (kamma,q.v.) of body,speech and mind,are conditioned through ignorance.By 'kamma-formations' are meant kammically wholesome and unwholesome volitions (cetanā),or volitional activities,in short kamma (q.v.,and Fund.II).

In view of the many misconceptions current in the West,it is necessary to repeat here that kamma (q.v.),as a technical term,never signifies anything but moral or immoral action,i.e.the above mentioned volitional activities,or kamma-formations,as either causing results in the present life or being the causes of future destiny and rebirth.Thus kamma,as a philosophical term,never means the result of action,as often wrongly conceived by Western authors.

Now,in what way are the kamma-formations conditioned through ignorance? As concerns the unwholesome kammaformations associated with greed,hate or delusion (lobhadosamoha),these are always and in all circumstances,conditioned through the simultaneous ignorance inseparably associated therewith.Thus,ignorance is for the unwholesome kamma-formations a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta-paccaya),association (sampayutta-paccaya),presence (atthi-paccaya),etc.Ignorance further may be for them a condition by way of decisive support or inducement (upanissaya-paccaya),if,for instance,ignorance coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil deeds,such as killing,stealing,unlawful sexual intercourse,etc.In these cases,therefore,ignorance is a 'natural decisive suppport' or 'direct inducement' (pakati-upanissaya-paccaya).It also may become an indirect inducement,by way of object (ārammaṇūpanissaya-paccaya) of our thinking.This takes place,if,for example,someone remembers a former state of ignorance combined with sensual enjoyment,and in doing so kammically unwholesome states spring up,such as sensual desire,grief,etc.

For the wholesome (kusala) kamma-formations,ignorance can only be a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya),never by way of co-nascence (sahajāta),etc.,since wholesome consciousness at that very moment,of course,cannot be associated with any unwholesome phenomenon,such as ignorance.Ignorance is a 'natural decisive support' or 'direct inducement' (pakatupanissaya),for example,if,induced by ignorance and vanity,one exerts oneself to attain the absorptions,and thus finally,through perseverance,reaches these wholesome states of mind.Ignorance may also be for wholesome kamma-formations a 'decisive support' or 'inducement by way of object' (ārammaṇūpanissaya),if,for example,one refleets on ignorance as the root of all misery in the world,and thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness.

For ignorance,s.avijjā; for kamma-formations,s.saṅkhāra



(2.) "Through the kamma-formations is conditioned consciousness" (Saṅkhāra-paccayā viññāṇaṃ).This proposition teaches that the wholesome and unwholesome kamma-formations are the causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere (gati).The kamma-formations of the previous life condition the budding in a new mother's womb of a fresh psycho-physical aggregation of the 5 groups of existence (s.khandha),which here are represented by consciousness (viññāṇa).All such kamma-resultant (vipāka) consciousness,however,such as eye-consciousness (seeing),etc.,as well as all the mental phenomena associated therewith (feeling,etc.),are kammically neutral.It should be understood that already from the very first moment of conception in the mother's womb,this kamma resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.

Against Dr.Paul Dahlke's misconception of the paṭiccasamuppāda as "one single kammical moment of personal experience," and of the 'simultaneity' of all the 12 links of this formula,I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees with all the different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient commentaries,but also is fully identical with the explanations given already in the canonical Suttas .Thus,for example,it is said verbatim in Nidāna-saṃyutta (S.XII,51):Once ignorance (1) and clinging (9) are extinguished,neither kammically meritorious,nor demeritorious,nor imperturbable kamma-formations (2=10) are produced,and thus no consciousness (3=11) will spring up again in a new mother's womb." And further:For,if consciousness were not to appear in the mother's womb,would in that case mentality and corporeality (4) arise?" Cf.above diagram.

The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show to suffering mankind how,depending on ignorance and delusion,this present existence and suffering has come about,and how through extinction of ignorance,and of the craving and clinging conditioned thereby,no more rebirth will follow,and thus the standstill of the process of existence will have been realized and therewith the extinction of all suffering.



(3.) "Through consciousness are conditioned corporeality and mentality" (viññāṇa-paccayā nāma-rūpani).This proposition implies that without consciousness there ean be no mental and physical process of existence.By mentality (nāma) is here to be understood the kamma-resultant (vipāka) mental phenomena,such as feeling (vedanā),perception (saññā),volition (cetanā:non-kammical volition is here meant),consciousness-impression (phassa),advertence (manasikāra) (M.9; S.XII,2).For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably associated with every state of consciousness,s.nāma.By corporeality (rūpa) is meant the 4 physical elements (s.dhātu) and the corporeality dependent thereon (s.khandha,I).

Mentality is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e.consciousness (viññāṇa) is for mentality (nāma) a condition by way of conascence (sahajāta),mutuality (aññamañña),association (sampayutta),etc.,since the 4 mental groups at all times form an inseparable unit.

Consciousness (viññāṇa) is for corporeality (rūpa) a condition by way of co-nascence only at the moment of conception,thereafter a condition by way of post-nascence (pacchājāta-paccayapaccaya 11) and nutriment (āhāra),i.e.as a support.Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is a condition and support for the pre-arisen body,so is the conseiousness arising afterwards a condition and support for the maintenance of this pre-arisen body.



(4.) "Through mentality and corporeality are conditioned the 6 bases (nāma-rūpa paccayā salāyatanam).The 6 bases are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs and,as 6th,the mind-base (manāyatana),i.e.consciousness.

Mentality (nāma; s.3) is for the 5 physical bases (āyatana),or sense-organs,a condition by way of post-nascence.Cf.end of 3.

Mentality (nāma),i.e.feeling.etc.,is for the 6th base,or consciousness - as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascencc.etc.

Corporeality (rūpa),here the 4 elements,are for the 5 physical bases (āyatana),or sense-organs,a condition by way of support (nissaya).

Corporeality (rūpa),here the 5 physical sense-organs,are for the 6th base (āyatana),i.e.consciousness,a condition by way of support and pre-nascence (purejāta-paccaya).



(5.) "Through the 6 bases is conditioned the (sensorial and mental) impression" (Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso),for without the 5 physical bases,or sense-organs,there can be no sense-impressions; and without the 6th base,or consciousness,there can be no mental impression.

Thus,the 5 physical bases,eye,etc.,are for the corresponding 5 sense-impressions (visual impression,etc.) a condition by way of support (nissaya) and pre-nascence (purejāta),whereas the 6th,the mind-base (consciousness),is for the mental impression a condition by way of co-nascence,association,mutuality,etc.



(6.) "Through impression is conditioned feeling" (Phassa-paccayā vedanā),i.e.the sensorial and the mental impressions are for the feeling associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascence,association,mutuality,etc.



(7.) "Through feeling is conditioned craving" (Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā).Any (kamma-resultant) feeling,whether agreeable,disagreeable or neutral,bodily or mental,past or expected,may become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanūpanissaya).Even physically and mentally painful feeling may,through the desire to be released therefrom,become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object (ārammanupanissaya).



(8.) "Through craving is conditioned clinging" (Taṇhā-paccayā upādānaṃ).'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form of craving.It is of 4 kinds:(1) clinging to sensuality,(2) to erroneous views,(3) to rules and ritual,(4) to personality-belief.Sensuous craving is to (1) a condition of natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).For (2-4),craving is a condition by way of co-nascence,mutuality,root (hetu),etc.It also may be a condition of natural decisive support.For example,through craving for heavenly rebirth,etc.people often may be induced to cling to certain rules and rituals,with the hope of reaching thereby the object of their desires.



(9.) "Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming" (Upādāna-paccayā bhavo),i.e.the wholesome and unwholesome active kamma-process of becoming (kamma-bhava),as well as the kamma-resultant (vipāka) passive process,the so-called 'rebirth-process' (upapatti-bhava).The kamma-process (kammabhava) comprises the 5 kammical causes:ignorance,kamma-formations,craving,clinging,kamma-process (s.1,2,8,9,10,of the diagram); the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava) comprises the 5 kamma-results (s.3-7 of the diagram).

The kamma-process is here,correctly speaking,a collective name for generative karmic volition (kamma-cetanā) and all the mental phenomena associated therewith,whilst the 2nd link (kamma-formations) designates only karmic volition (s.āyūhana).Both,however,i.e.the 2nd and 10th proposition,practically state one and the same thing,namely,that kamma is the cause of rebirth,as we shall see under 10.

Clinging (upādāna) may be an inducement of decisive support (upanissaya) to many kinds of wholesome and unwholesome kamma.Sensuous clinging (kāmūpādāna),i.e.clinging to sensuous objects,for example,may be a direct inducement to murder,theft,unlawful intercourse with the other sex,evil words and thoughts,etc.Clinging to rules and ritual (sīlabbatūpādāna) may lead to self-complacency,fanaticism,cruelty,etc.Clinging is also for the evil kamma associated therewith,a condition by way of co-nascence,association,etc.



(10.) "Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth" (Bhava-paccayā jāti),i.e.through the wholesome and unwholesome kamma-process (kamma-bhava) is conditioned the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhava).The 2nd and 10th propositions,as already pointed out,practically teach one and the same thing,namely,that kamma is the cause of rebirth; in other words,that the kammical volition (cetanā) is the seed out of which springs the new life,just as from the mango-seed is generated the new mango-tree.

Hence,the 5 kammical causes (ignorance,etc.) of the past birth are the condition for the kamma-results of the present birth; and the 5 kammical causes of the present birth are the condition for the 5 kamma-results of the next birth (s.diagram).As it is said in Vis.M.XVII:

"Five causes were there in the past,

Five fruits we find in present life;

Five causes do we now produce,

Five fruits we reap in future life."



Now,just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily phenomena,nothing can be found that would pass from one moment to the next moment,so also there is no enduring entity,ego,or personality,within this process of existence that would transmigrate from one life to the next (s.nāma-rūpaanattāpaṭisandhikhandha)."No being and no living soul passed from the former life to this life,and yet this present embryo could not have entered into existence without the preceding causes" (Vis.M.XVII)."Many things may serve to illustrate this fact,as for example the echo,the light of a lamp,the impression of a seal,or the image produced by a mirror" (ib.).

"Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things,and does not understand that kamma originates from ignorance,etc.,he thinks that it must be his ego that knows or does not know,acts and causes to act,and that arises at rebirth.Or he thinks that the atoms,or a creator,with the help of this embryonic process,must have formed this body,or that it is the ego endowed with faculties that has impressions,feels,desires,clings,continues and enters again into existence in a new birth.Or he thinks that all beings have been born through fate,or fortuitously" (Vis.M.XVII).

Now,on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in the world is determined by conditions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism teaches some sort of fatalism,and that man has no free will,or that will is not free.

The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for,the Buddhist,since he knows that,apart from these everchanging mental and physical phenomena,no such entity as 'man' can be found,and that 'man' is merely a name not relating to any reality.And the question,'whether will is free',must be rejected for the reason that 'will',or volition,is a mental phenomenon flashing forth only for a moment,and that as such it had not any existence at the preceding moment.For of a thing which is not,or is not yet,one cannot,properly speaking,ask whether it is free or unfree.The only admissible question would be whether the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions,or whether it is conditioned.But the same question would equally apply also to all the other mental phenomena,as well as to all physical phenomena,in other words:to everything and every occurrence whatever.And the answer would be:whether will arises,or whether feeling arises,or whether any other mental or any physical phenomenon arises,the arising of anything whatsoever is dependent on conditions,and without conditions nothing ever can arise or enter into existence.

According to Buddhism,everything mental or physical happens in accordance with laws and conditions; and if it were otherwise,chaos and blind chance would reign.But such a thing is impossible and contradicts all laws of thinking.Cf.Fund.III (end).

(11.) "Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death" (jātipaccayā jarā-maraṇaṃ).Without birth there can be no old age and death,no suffering and misery.Thus rebirth is to old age and death,etc.a condition by way of decisive support (upanissaya).

The Buddha has said (D.15):Profound,Ānanda.is this dependent origination,and profound does it appear.It is through not understanding,not penetrating,this law that this world resembles a tangled ball of thread,a bird's nest,a thicket of sedge or reed,and that man does not escape from the lower states of existence,from the course of woe and perdition,suffering from the round of rebirth." And further (M.28):'Whoso understands the dependent origination understands the Dhamma; and whoso understands the Dhamma understands the dependent origination."
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
paṭiccasamuppāda:[m.] causal genesis; dependent origination.
Pali Viet Abhidhamma Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ Vô Tỷ Pháp của ngài Tịnh Sự, được chép từ phần ghi chú thuật ngữ trong các bản dịch của ngài.
paṭiccasamuppāda:y tương sinh
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
paṭiccasamuppāda:ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါဒ(ပု)
[ပဋိစၥ+သမုပၸါဒ(သံ+ဥ+ပဒ+ဏ)။ သာမဂၢိအဂၤါနံ အညမေညန ပဋိမုခံ ဣေတာ ဂေတာတိ ကတြာ ပဋိေစၥာတိ ဝုစၥတိ။ သြာယံ သဟိေတေယဝ အညမညံ အဝိနိေဗ႓ာဂဝုတၱိဓေမၼ ဥပၸါေဒတီတိ သမုပၸါေဒါတိပိ ဝုေတၱာ။ ဧဝမၸိ ပဋိေစၥာ စ ေသာ သမုပၸါေဒါ စာတိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ။ ဝိသုဒၶိ၊၂။၁၅၂။ ပဋိစၥ သမုပၸဇၨတိ ဖလံ ဧတသၼာတိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ။ ပဒဒြေယနပိ ဓမၼာနံ ပစၥယေ႒ာ ဧဝ ဝိဘာဝိေတာ။ မ၊ဋီ၊၂။၁၃၁။သံ၊ ဋီ၊၁။၂၃ဝ။ ပဋိစၥ သမုပၸဇၨတိ သခၤါရာဒိကံ ဧတသၼာတိ ဟိ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါေဒါ၊ ပေစၥကံ အဝိဇၨာဒိေကာ ပစၥယဓေမၼာ။ အႏုဋီ၊၃။၃။]
အေၾကာင္း၊ အေၾကာင္းတရား၊ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါဒ္တရား။
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
paṭiccasamuppāda:ပဋိစၥ-သမုပၸါဒ (ပ)
အေၾကာင္းတရားတို႔ကို စြဲ၍ အက်ိဳးတရားတို႔၏ ျဖစ္ျခင္း။ ပဋိစၥသမုပၸါဒ္။

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