Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Ni°,[Sk.ni- & nih-,insep.prefixes:(a) ni down=Av.ni,cp.Gr.neiόs lowland,nei/atos the lowest,hindmost; Lat.nīdus (*ni-zdos:place to sit down=nest); Ags.nēol,nider=E.nether; Goth.nidar=Ohg.nidar; also Sk.nīca,nīpa etc.-- (b) niḥ out,prob.fr.*seni & to Lat.sine without].Nearly all (ultimately prob.all) words under this heading are cpds.with the pref.ni.‹-› A.Forms.1.Pāli ni° combines the two prefixes ni & nis (nir).They are outwardly to be distinguished inasmuch as ni is usually followed by a single consonant (except in forms where double cons.is usually restored in composition,like ni-kkhipati=ni+ kṣip nissita= ni+sri.Sometimes the double cons.is merely graphic or due to analogy,esp.in words where ni- is contrasted with ud- (“up”),as nikkujja›ukkujja,niggilati› uggilati,ninnamati›unnamati).On the other hand a compn with nis is subject to the rules of assimilation,viz.either doubling of cons.(nibbhoga=nir-bhoga) where vv is represented by bb (nibbiṇṇa fr.nir-vindati),or lengthening of ni to (nīyādeti as well as niyy°; nīharati=nir+har),or single cons.in the special cases of r & v (niroga besides nīroga for nirroga,cp.duratta ›dūrakkha; niveṭheti=nibbeṭheti,nivāreti=*nivvāreti=nīvāreti).Before a vowel the sandhi-cons.r is restored:nir-aya,nir-upadhi etc.-- 2.Both ni & nis are base-prefixes only,& of stable,well-defined character,i.e.never enter combns with other prefixes as first (modifying) components in verb-function (like saṁ,vi etc.),although nis occurs in such combn in noun-cpds.negating the whole term:nir-upadhi,nis-saṁsaya etc.‹-› 3.ni is freq.emphasised by saṁ as saṁni° (tud,dhā,pat,sad); nis most freq.by abhi as abhinis° (nam,pad,vatt,har).

B.Meanings.1.ni (with secondary derivations like nīca “low”) is a verb-pref.only,i.e.it characterises action with respect to its direction,which is that of (a) a downward motion (opp.abhi & ud); (b) often implying the aim (=down into,on to,cp.Lat.sub in subire,or pref.ad°); or (c) the reverting of an upward motion=back (identical with b); e.g.(a) ni-dhā (put down),°kkhip (throw d.),°guh (hide d.),°ci (heap up),°pad (fall d.),°sad (sit d.); (b) ni-ratta (at-tached to),°mant (speak to); °yuj (ap-point),°ved (ad-dress),°sev (be devoted to) etc.; (c) ni-vatt (turn back).-- 2.nis (a) as verb-pref.it denotes the directional “out” with further development to “away from,opposite,without,” pointing out the finishing,completion or vanishing of an action & through the latter idea often assuming the meaning of the reverse,disappearance or contrary of an action=“un” (Lat.dis-),e.g.nikkhamati (to go out from) opp.pavisati (to enter into),°ccharati (nis to car to go forth),°ddhamati (throw out),°pajjati (result from),°bbattati (vatt spring out from),nīharati (take out),nirodhati (break up,destroy).-- (b) as nounpref.it denotes “being without” or “not having”= E.--less,e.g.niccola without clothes,°ttaṇha (without thirst),°ppurisa (without a man),°pphala (without fruit); niccala motion-less,°kkaruṇa (heartless),°ddosa (fault°),°maṁsa (flesh°),°saṁsaya (doubt°) nirattha (useless),°bbhaya (fear°).-- Bdhgh evidently takes ni- in meaning of nis only,when defining:ni-saddo abhāvaṁ dīpeti Vism.495.(Page 351)

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