Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
Kosala:m.[Sk.Kauśala] 憍薩羅 [十六大國之一,首都是 Sāvatthī].
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
Kosala:m.[Sk.Kauśala] コーサラ,憍薩羅 [十六大国の一,首都はSāvatthī].
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
Kosala:(古國名)高沙喇, (古音譯:)憍薩羅,拘薩羅,拘舍羅
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Kosala,【陽】 嶠薩羅國(國名,在佛陀的時候是一個顯著的國家)。(p110)
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
kosala: kosala(pu)
[kosa+lā+a.kusala+ṇa.kosaṃ lanti gaṇhanti kusalaṃ vā pucchantīti kosalā....kosalānaṃ nivāsā kosalā.sī,ṭī,,2.2vava.,ṭī.184.]
[ေကာသ+လာ+အ။ ကုသလ+ဏ။ ေကာသံ လႏၲိ ဂဏွႏၲိ ကုသလံ ဝါ ပုစၧႏၲီတိ ေကာသလာ။...ေကာသလာနံ နိဝါသာ ေကာသလာ။ သီ၊ဋီ၊သစ္၊၂။၂ဝဝ။ဓာန္၊ဋီ။၁၈၄။]
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
kosala:[m.] name of a country which was prominent at the time of the Buddha.
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera
Kosala:Daughter of Mahā Kosala and sister ofPasenadi.

She was married to Bimbisāra,and a village in Kāsi was given to her for bath-money as part of her dowry.She was the mother of Ajātasattu.(Ajātasattu is called Videhiputta).When pregnant with him,she was filled with a desire to drink blood from the right knee of her husband,and on learning from the astrologers that this presaged the birth of a patricide,she went to the park-called,on that account,Maddakucchi - and tried to bring about an abortion,but failed.Bimbisāra satisfied her longing.When Bimbisāra was imprisoned by Ajātasattu she waited upon him,taking him food till she was absolutely prevented from doing so.After his death she died of grief,and Pasenadi made war on Ajātasattu to avenge her death.J.ii.237; 403; iii.121f.
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera
Kosala:A country inhabited by the Kosalā,to the north-west of Magadha and next to Kāsī.

It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen Mahājanapadas (E.g.,A.i.213; iv.252,etc.).In the Buddha’s time it was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi,who was succeeded by his son Vidūdabha.By this time Kāsī was under the subjection of Kosala,for we find that when Bimbisāra,king of Magadha,married Kosaladevī,daughter of Mahākosala and sister of Pasenadi,a village in Kāsī was given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f).

Various Jātakas indicate that the struggle between Kāsi and Kosala had been very prolonged (See,e.g.,J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316,425).Sometimes the Kāsi king would attack Kosala,capture the king and rule over the country.At others the Kosala king would invade Kāsi and annex it to his own territory.Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing this,are mentioned by name - e.g.,Dabbasena (J.iii.13),Dīghāvu (J.iii.211f),Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the special title of ”Bāranāsiggāha,” (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kāsi.Other kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another are mentioned - e.g.,Dīghiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f),Mallika (J.ii.3),and Chatta (J.iii.116).

Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial alliances (e.g.,J.iii.407).With the capture of Kāsi the power of Kosala increased rapidly,until a struggle between this country and Magadha became inevitable.Bimbisāra’s marriage was probably a political alliance,but it only served to postpone the evil day.Quite soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajātasattu,his successor,and Pasenadi,these fights bringing varying fortunes to the combatants.Once Ajātasattu was captured alive,but Pasenadi spared his life and gave him his daughter,Vajirā,in marriage and for a time all went well.Later,however,after his conquest of the Licchavis,Ajātasattu seems to have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala.(See Vincent Smith,op.cit.,32f).

In the sixth century B.C.the Sākyan territory of Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala.The Sutta Nipāta (vs.405) speaks of the Buddha’s birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276,where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala.Elsewhere (M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying,”Bhagavā pi Kosalako,aham pi Kosalako.”

At the time of the BuddhaSāvatthi was the capital of Kosala.Next in importance was Saketa,which,in ancient days,had sometimes been the capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348).There was also Ayojjhā,on the banks of the Sarayu,which,judging from the Rāmāyana,must once have been the chief city; but in the sixth century B.C.it was quite unimportant.

The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts,Uttara Kosala and Dakkhina Kosala (Law:Geog.,p.6).

Other Kosala rivers mentioned in the books are the Aciravatī (D.i.235) and the Sundarikā (S.i.167; SN.p.97; but see M.i.39,where the river is called Bāhukā).

Among localities spoken of as being in Kosala are:

Icchānangala (A.iii.30,341; iv.340, etc.), Ukkatthā (D.i.87), Ekasālā (S.i.111), Opasāda (M.ii.164), Kesaputta of the Kālāmas (A.i.188), Candalakappa (M.ii.209), Toranavatthu (S.iv.374), Dandakappa (A.iii.402), Nagaravinda (M.iii.290), Nalakapāna (A.v.122; M.i.462), Nālandā (S.iv.322), Pankadhā (A.i.236), Venāgapura (A.i.180), Veludvāra (S.v.352), Sālā (M.i.285,400; S.v.227), Sālāvatika (D.i.244), and Setavya (D.ii.316).The Mtu.adds Dronavastuka (iii.377) and Mārakaranda (i.317).

The Commentaries (E.g.,SNA.ii.400f; DA.i.239f) give a curious explanation of the name Kosalā.It is said that when nothing could make Mahāpanāda smile,his father offered a big reward for anyone who could succeed in doing this.People,accordingly,left their work and flocked to the court,but it,was not until Sakka sent down a celestial actor that Mahāpanāda showed any signs of being amused.When this happened the men returned to their various duties,and on their way home,when meeting their friends,they asked of each other,”Kacci bho kusalam,kacci bho kusalam.” The district where this occurred came to be called Kosalā on account of the repetition of the word kusala.

The Buddha spent the greater part of his time in Kosala,either in Sāvatthi or in touring in the various parts of the country,and many of the Vinaya rules were formulated in Kosala.(See Vinaya Index,s.v.Kosala).It is said (SA.i.221) that alms were plentiful in Kosala,though,evidently (J.i.329),famines,due to drought,were not unknown.Yet,though woodland tracts were numerous (see,e.g.,SA.i.225) where monks could meditate in solitude,the number of monks actually found in Kosala was not large (VT.i.226).Bāvarī himself was a native of Kosala (SN.v.976),yet he preferred to have his hermitage in Dakkhināpatha.

After the Buddha’s death,his unnaloma was deposited in a thūpa in Kosala (Bu.xxviii.9).It is said that the measures used in Kosala were larger than those of Magadha - thus one Kosala pattha was equal to four Magadha patthas (SNA.ii.476).

Kosala is often mentioned in combination with Kāsi in the compound Kāsi-Kosala; Pasenadi was king of Kāsi-Kosala (e.g.,A.v.59) (cf.Ariga-Magadha).See also Pasenadi.

Kosala.-A Pacceka Buddha,mentioned in a list of names.M.iii.70; ApA.i.107.
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
KOSALA:[m] tên xứ rất có uy quyền trong thời đức Phật
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
kosala:ေကာသလ (ပု)
[ေကာသ+လာ+အ။ ကုသလ+ဏ။ ေကာသံ လႏၲိ ဂဏွႏၲိ ကုသလံ ဝါ ပုစၧႏၲီတိ ေကာသလာ။...ေကာသလာနံ နိဝါသာ ေကာသလာ။ သီ၊ဋီ၊သစ္၊၂။၂ဝဝ။ဓာန္၊ဋီ။၁၈၄။]
(၁) ေကာသလမင္းသား။ (၂) ေကာသလ-ဇနပုဒ္-တိုင္း။ (၃) ေကာသလတိုင္း၏ အရွင္၊ ေကာသလမင္း၊ ပေသနဒိေကာသလမင္း။မူရင္းၾကည့္ပါ"
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
kosala:ေကာသလ (ပ)
ေကာသလတိုင္း။ ေကာသလတိုင္းသား။

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