Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
kamma:n.[Sk.karman] 業,行為,作業,家業,羯磨,儀式.acc.kamma,kammaṃ,kammānaṃ.-ūpacaya 業積集.-kara,-kāra 雜役夫,被雇傭者.-kāraṇa 刑罰.-kārin 作務者,行為的作者,作業者.-kilesa 業垢.-ja 業生的.-dāyāda 業的相續者,業嗣續者(受業的嗣續者),業的承受者(自己承受自己業報者,自作自受者).-dosa 羯磨的不成(羯磨-瞋恚).-dheyya 義務.-nibbatta 業生.-nimitta 業相.-paṭibaddha 業繋屬,已被業繋結執著.-paṭisaraṇa 使以業為所依(歸依,依處).-bhava 業有.-yoni 以業(做)為胎,使以業為因.-vaṭṭa 業輪轉.-vatthu 羯磨事.-vācā 羯磨儀規.-vāda 業論,業論者.-vādin 業論者.-vipāka 業異熟,業報.-santati 業相續.-samaya 造業時.-samuṭṭhāna 業等起,由業所生起.-sampatti 羯磨的成就.-ūpaga 已隨業的,已應業(報)的.
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
kamma:n.[Sk.karman] 業,行為,作業,家業,羯磨,儀式.acc.kamma,kammaṃ,kammānaṃ.-ūpacaya 業積集.-kara,-kāra 雜役夫,被傭者.-kāraṇa 刑罰.-kārin 作務者.-kilesa 業垢.-ja 業生の.-dāyāda 業の相続者,業嗣続者.-dosa 羯磨の不成.-dheyya 義務.-nibbatta 業生.-nimitta 業相.-paṭibaddha 業繋属.-paṭisaraṇa 業を所依とす.-bhava 業有.-yoni 業を胎とする,業を因とす.-vaṭṭa 業輪転.-vatthu 羯磨事.-vācā 羯磨儀規.-vāda 業論,業論者.-vādin 業論者.-vipāka 業異熟,業報.-santati 業相続.-samaya 造業時.-samuṭṭhāna 業等起.-sampatti 羯磨の成就.-ūpaga 業に従える,業に応じた.
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
kamma:甘馬。巴利語的音譯,意為業、行為、造作。若以譯音出現時,則專指僧團的表決會議。
漢傳佛教依梵語karma音譯為“羯磨”。
巴利語匯解&巴利新音譯 瑪欣德尊者
kamma:(律學名詞)甘馬,業,行為, (古音譯:)羯磨
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Kamma,【中】 業,行為,工作,造作。~kara,~kara,【陽】 工人,勞工。~karaṇa,【中】 造業,勞動,服務,工作。~kāraṇā,【陰】 體罰。~kāraka,【中】 (語法)賓格。~kkhaya,【陽】 消業。~ja,【形】 業生的。~jāta,【中】 各種業,各種不同的行動或工作。~dāyāda,【形】 受作業分(受業的嗣),業的繼承者。~nānatta,【中】 多種業。~nibbatta,【形】 通過業而生的。~paṭisarana,【形】 業的堅固。 ~patha,【陽】 業道,行動的方法。~ppaccaya,【形】 業緣的。~phala,【中】 業的果,因果的報應。~bandhu,【形】 業的眷屬,業為親戚。~bala,【中】 業力,因果報應的力量。~yoni,【形】 業的生,業為母胎。~vāda,【陽】 業論,因果報應的觀點。~vādī,【形】 信業,信仰因果報應。~vipāka,【陽】 業的異熟,業的報應。~vega,【陽】 業的推動力,因果報應的動力。~samuṭṭhāna,【形】 由業而生起的。 ~sambhava,【形】 業生的。~sarikkhaka,【形】 與業有相似的因果關系。 ~saka,【形】 自作業,業的主人。 ~āyūhana,【中】 業的堆積。 ~upacaya,【陽】業的積聚。(p95)
《巴漢詞典》明法尊者增訂
Kamma,【中】業(action﹐volitional,造作身口意的善因、惡因),行為(deed),工作(job),造作(work)。kammakara,kammakāra,【陽】工人,勞工。kammakaraṇa,【中】造業,勞動,服務,工作。kammakāraṇā,【陰】體罰。kammakāraka,【中】(語法)賓格。 kammakaraporisa,【陽】男仆。kammakkhaya,【陽】消業。kammaja,【形】業生的。kammajāta,【中】各種業,各種不同的行動或工作。kammadāyāda,【形】受作業分(受業的嗣),業的繼承者。kammanānatta,【中】多種業。kammanibbatta,【形】通過業而生的。kammaniyāma﹐業的定律。kammapaṭisaraṇa,【形】依靠業。kammapatha,【陽】業道,行動的方法。kammappaccaya,【形】業緣的。kammaphala(=vipāka異熟),【中】業的果,因果的報應。kammabandhu,【形】業的眷屬,業為親戚。kammabala,【中】業力,因果報應的力量。kammayoni,【形】業的生,業為母胎。kammavāda,【陽】業論,因果報應的觀點。kammavādī,【形】信業,信仰因果報應。kammavipāka,【陽】業的異熟,業的報應。kammavega,【陽】業的推動力,因果報應的動力。kammasamuṭṭhāna,【形】由業而生起的。kammasambhava,【形】業生的。kammasarikkhaka,【形】與業有相似的因果關系。kammassaka,【形】自作業,自己造的業,業的主人。kammassakadiṭṭhi,【形】自作業之見。kammāyūhana,【中】業的堆積。kammaupacaya,【陽】業的積聚。dasakammapatha﹐十業道。十不善業道:pāṇātipātā(=pāṇaṁ hanati)殺生、adinnādānā (=adinnaṁ ādiyati) sammādiṭṭhikā不與取、kāmesumicchācārā(=kāmesu micchā carati)邪淫(與妻非處行淫亦屬邪淫,‘非處’謂口及大便處)、musāvādā(=musā vadati)妄語、pisuṇāya vācāya(=pisuṇaṁ katheti)離間、pharusāya vācāya(=pharusaṁ bhāsati)粗語、samphappalāpā(= samphaṁ palapati)綺語、abhijjhā貪、byāpannacittā瞋、micchādiṭṭhi邪見。十善業道:離殺生、離不與取、離邪淫、離妄語、離離間、離粗語、離綺語、無貪、無瞋、正見。kammassakatā sammādiṭṭhi﹐自業正見,視「業」為個自的財產的正見。有六種自業正見:sabbe sattā kammassakā,kammadāyādā,kammayoni,kammabandhū,kammappaṭisaraṇā,yaṁ kammaṁ karissanti kālayānaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādā bhavissanti.一切眾生各有己業、業的承繼人、業是母胎、業是眷屬、業是所依,他們都是自己所造善惡業的主人由業區分有情而有貴賤尊卑等(A.5.57./III,75.)。Yathā yathā’yaṁ puriso kammaṁ karoti tathā tathā taṁ paṭisamvediyati﹐隨人所作業則受其報(=如此如此那人作業,他自受如是如是〔報〕)。AA.5.89./III,274.:Kammārāmatāti navakamme ramanakabhāvo.(好(起)事業:樂於新的營作。)AA.6.14./III,348.:Kammārāmoti-ādīsu āramaṇaṁ ārāmo,abhiratīti attho.Vihārakaraṇādimhi navakamme ārāmo assāti kammārāmo.(寺)園的營作等:樂於(寺)園的目標之意。於蓋精舍等新的營作(寺)園--給這個「(寺)園的工作」(之定義)。D.16./II,78.:“Yāvakīvañca,bhikkhave,bhikkhū na kammārāmā bhavissanti na kammaratā na kammārāmatamanuyuttā,vuddhiyeva,bhikkhave,bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā,no parihāni.(「又,諸比丘!只要諸比丘不喜營作、不喜好(起)事業,諸比丘!則應可預期諸比丘之興盛而非衰亡。」DA.16./I,528.:kammanti itikātabbakammaṁ vuccati. Seyyathidaṁ-- cīvaravicāraṇaṁ,cīvarakaraṇaṁ,upatthambhanaṁ,sūcigharaṁ,pattatthavikaṁ,asaṁbaddhakaṁ,kāyabandhanaṁ,dhamakaraṇaṁ,ādhārakaṁ,pādakathalikaṁ,sammajjanī-ādīnaṁ karaṇanti.(營作:諸如此類的工作之謂。如:審查衣物,做衣服,支撐物,針盒,缽帶,非系屬物(帶子?),腰帶,吹具,凳子,腳凳,掃帚等。)
巴利文-漢文佛學名相辭匯 翻譯:張文明
Kamma:(Skt.karma)業
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
kamma: kamma(na)
ကမၼ(န)
[kamu+ramma]
[ကမု+ရမၼ]
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
kamma: kamma(na)
ကမၼ(န)
[kara+ramma.karīyatīti kammaṃ.rū.589.]
[ကရ+ရမၼ။ ကရီယတီတိ ကမၼံ။ ႐ူ။ ၅၈၉။]
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
kamma:ahosi-janaka-garuka-bahula-upatthambhaka-upaghātaka-upapīlaka-maraṇāsanna-upacchedaka-k .None of these terms is found in the Sutta or Abh.Canon.They have been introduced by the commentators (e.g.in Abh.S.and Vis.M.) for the purpose of a systematical grouping of the various aspects and functions of kamma.The term katattā ,however,occurs repeatedly in the Abh.Canon in such expressions as:' Yasmiṃ samaye ... kusalassa kammassa katattā ... cakkhuviññāṇaṃ hoti....' (Dhs.§ 431); or:' Yaṃ atthi rūpam kammassa katattā ....' (Dhs.§ 653); or ' katattā ca rūpānaṃ ' (Patth.),etc.
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
kamma:(Sanskrit:karma):'action',correctly speaking denotes the wholesome and unwholesome volitions (kusala- and akusala-cetanā) and their concomitant mental factors,causing rebirth and shaping the destiny of beings.These kammical volitions (kamma cetanā) become manifest as wholesome or unwholesome actions by body (kāya-kamma),speech (vacī-kamma) and mind (mano-kamma).Thus the Buddhist term 'kamma' by no means signifies the result of actions,and quite certainly not the fate of man,or perhaps even of whole nations (the so-called wholesale or mass-kamma),misconceptions which,through the influence of theosophy,have become widely spread in the West.

"Volition (cetanā),o monks,is what I call action (cetanāhaṃ bhikkhave kammaṃ vadāmi),for through volition one performs the action by body,speech or mind..There is kamma (action),o monks,that ripens in hell....Kamma that ripens in the animal world..Kamma that ripens in the world of men....Kamma that ripens in the heavenly world....Threefold,however,is the fruit of kamma:ripening during the life-time (diṭṭha-dhamma-vedanīya kamma),ripening in the next birth (upapajja-vedanīya kamma),ripening in later births (aparāpariya-vedanīya kamma) ...." (A.VI,63).

The 3 conditions or roots (mūla,q.v.) of unwholesome kamma (actions) are greed,hatred,delusion (lobhadosamoha); those of wholesome kamma are:unselfishness (alobha),hatelessness (adosa = mettā,good-will),undeludedness (amoha = paññā,knowledge) .

"Greed,o monks,is a condition for the arising of kamma; hatred is a condition for the arising of kamma; delusion is a condition for the arising of kamma ...." (A.III,109).

"The unwholesome actions are of 3 kinds,conditioned by greed,or hate,or delusion.

"Killing ...stealing ...unlawful sexual intercourse ...lying ...slandering ...rude speech ...foolish babble,if practised,carried on,and frequently cultivated,leads to rebirth in hell,or amongst the animals,or amongst the ghosts" (A.III,40)."He who kills and is cruel goes either to hell or,if reborn as man,will be short-lived.He who torments others will be afflicted with disease.The angry one will look ugly,the envious one will be without influence,the stingy one will be poor,the stubborn one will be of low descent,the indolent one will be without knowledge.In the contrary case,man will be reborn in heaven or reborn as man,he will be long-lived,possessed of beauty,influence,noble descent and knowledge" (cf.M.135).

For the above 10-fold wholesome and unwholesome course of action,see kamma-patha.For the 5 heinous crimes with immediate result,s.ānantarika-kamma

"Owners of their kamma are the beings,heirs of their kamma,their kamma is their womb from which they are born,their kamma is their friend,their refuge.Whatever kamma they perform,good or bad,thereof they will be the heirs" (M.135).

With regard to the time of the taking place of the kamma-result (vipāka),one distinguishes,as mentioned above,3 kinds of kamma:

1.kamma ripening during the life-time (diṭṭha-dhamma-vedanīya kamma);

2.kamma ripening in the next birth (upapajja-vedanīya kamma);

3.kamma ripening in later births (aparāpariya-vedanīya kamma).

The first two kinds of kamma may be without kamma-result (vipāka),if the circumstances required for the taking place of the kamma-result are missing,or if,through the preponderance of counteractive kamma and their being too weak,they are unable to produce any result.In this case they are called ahosi-kamma,lit.'kamma that has been',in other words,ineffectual kamma.

The third type of kamma,however,which bears fruit in later lives,will,whenever and wherever there is an opportunity,be productive of kamma-result.Before its result has ripened,it will never become ineffective as long as the life-process is kept going by craving and ignorance.

According to the Com.,e.g.Vis.M.XIX,the 1st of the 7 kammical impulsive-moments (kamma-javana; s.javana) is considered as 'kamma ripening during the life-time',the 7th moment as 'kamma ripening in the next birth',the remaining 5 moments as 'kamma ripening in later births'.

With regard to their functions one distinguishes:

1.regenerative (or productive) kamma (janaka-kamma),

2.supportive (or consolidating) kamma (upatthambhaka kamma),

3.counteractive (suppressive or frustrating) kamma (upapīḷaka kamma),

4.destructive (or supplanting) kamma (upaghātaka- or upacchedaka kamma).

(1) produces the 5 groups of existence (corporeality,feeling,perception,mental formations,consciousness) at rebirth as well as during life-continuity.

(2) does not produce kamma-results but is only able to maintain the already produced kamma-results.

(3) counteracts or suppresses the kamma-results.

(4) destroys the influence of a weaker kamma and effects only its own result.

With regard to the priority of their result one distinguishes:

1.weighty kamma (garuka kamma),

2.habitual kamma (āciṇṇaka- or bahula-kamma),

3.death-proximate kamma (maraṇāsanna kamma),

4.stored-up kamma (kaṭattākamma).

(1,2) The weighty (garuka) and the habitual (bahula) wholesome or unwholesome kamma are ripening earlier than the light and rarely performed kamma.(3) The death-proximate (maraṇāsanna) kamma - i.e.the wholesome or unwholesome volition present immediately before death,which often may be the reflex of some previously performed good or evil action (kamma),or of a sign of it (kamma-nimitta),or of a sign of the future existence (gati-nimitta) - produces rebirth.(4) In the absence of any of these three actions at the moment before death,the stored-up (katattā) kamma will produce rebirth.

A real,and in the ultimate sense true,understanding of Buddhist kamma doctrine is possible only through a deep insight into the impersonality (s.anattā) and conditionality (s.paṭiccasamuppādapaccaya) of all phenomena of existence."Everywhere,in all the forms of existence ...such a one is beholding merely mental and physical phenomena kept going by their being bound up through causes and effects.

"No doer does he see behind the deeds,no recipient apart from the kamma-fruit.And with full insight he clearly understands that the wise ones are using merely conventional terms when,with regard to the taking place of any action,they speak of a doer,or when they speak of a receiver of the kamma-results at their arising.Therefore the ancient masters have said:

'No doer of the deeds is found,

No one who ever reaps their fruits;

Empty phenomena roll on:

This view alone is right and true.



'And whilst the deeds and their results

Roll on,based on conditions all,

There no beginning can be seen,

Just as it is with seed and tree.' " (Vis.M.XIX)



Kamma (kamma-paccaya) is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya,q.v.) (App.:Kamma).

Literature:Kamma and Rebirth,by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 9); Survival and Kamma in Buddhist Perspective,by K.N.Jayatilleke (WHEEL 141/143); Kamma and its Fruit (WHEEL 221/224).
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
kamma:(wholesome or unwholesome) action; s.kamma.
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
kamma:[nt.] deed; action; job; work.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Kamma,(nt.) [Vedic karman,work esp.sacrificial process.For ending °man=Idg.*men cp.Sk.dhāman=Gr.dh=ma,Sk.nāman=Lat nomen] the doing,deed,work; orig.meaning (see karoti) either building (cp.Lit.kùrti,Opr.kūra to build) or weaving,plaiting (still in mālākamma and latā° “the intertwining of garlands and creepers”; also in kamma-kara possibly orig.employed in weaving,i.e.serving); cp.Lat.texo,to weave=Sk.takṣan builder,artisan,& Ger.wirken,orig.weben.Grammatically karman has in Pāli almost altogether passed into the --a decl.,the cons.forms for Instr.& Abl.kammā and kammanā Gen.Dat.kammuno,are rare.The Nom.pl.is both kammā and kammāni.

I.Crude meaning.1.(lit.) Acting in a special sense,i.e.office,occupation,doing,action,profession.Two kinds are given at Vin.IV,6,viz.low (hīna) & high (ukkaṭṭha) professions.To the former belong the kammāni of a koṭṭhaka and a pupphacchaḍḍaka,to the latter belong vāṇijjā and gorakkhā.-Kamma as a profession or business is regarded as a hindrance to the religious life,& is counted among the ten obstacles (see palibodha).In this sense it is at Vism.94 expld by navakamma (see below 2a).-kassa° ploughing,occupation of a ploughman Vism.284; kumbhakāra° profession of a potter J.VI,372; tunna° weaving Vism.122; PvA.161.purohita° office of a high-priest (=abstr.n.porohiccaṁ) SnA 466; vāṇija° trade Sāsv.40.-kammanā by profession Sn.650,651; kammāni (pl.) occupations Sn.263=Kh V.6 (anavajjāni k.=anākulā kammantā Sn.262).paresaṁ k°ṁ katvā doing other people’s work=being a servant VvA.299; sa° pasutā bent upon their own occupations D.I,135,cp.attano k°- kubbānaṁ Dh.217.kamma-karaṇa-sālā work-room (here:weaving shed) PvA.120.

2.Acting in general,action,deed,doing (nearly always --°) (a) (active) act,deed,job,often to be rendered by the special verb befitting the special action,like cīvara° mending the cloak VvA.250; uposatha° observing the Sabbath Vbh.422; nava° making new,renovating,repairing,patching Vin.II,119,159 (°karoti to make repairs); J.I,92:Vism.94,adj.navakammika one occupied with repairs Vin.II,15; S.I,179; patthita° the desired action (i.e.sexual intercourse) DhA.II,49; kammaṁ karoti to be active or in working,to act:nāgo pādehi k.k.the elephant works with his feet M.I,414; kata° the job done by the thieves DhA.II,38 (corehi),as adj.kata° cora (& akata °cora) a thief who has finished his deed (& one who has not) Vism.180,also in special sense:occasion for action or work,i.e.necessity,purpose:ukkāya kammaṁ n’atthi,the torch does not work,is no good Vism.428.(b) (passive) the act of being done (-°),anything done (in its result),work,often as collect.abstr.(to be trsld.by E.ending --ing):apaccakkha° not being aware,deception Vbh.85; daḷhī° strengthening,increase Vbh.357,Vism.122; citta° variegated work,mālā° garlands,latā° creeper (-work) Vism.108; nāma° naming Bdhd 83; pañhā° questioning,“questionnaire” Vism.6.-- So in definitions niṭṭhuriya°=niṭṭhuriya Vbh.357; nimitta°= nimitta,obhāsa°=obhāsa (apparition › appearing) Vbh.353.-- (c) (intrs.) making,getting,act,process (-°).Often trsl.as abstr.n.with ending --ion or --ment,e.g.okāsa° opportunity of speaking,giving an audience Sn.p.94; pātu° making clear,manifestation DhA.IV,198 anāvi° anuttāni° concealment Vbh.358; kata° (adj.) one who has done the act or process,gone through the experience SnA 355; añjali° sāmīci° veneration,honouring (in formula with nipaccakāra abhivādana paccuṭṭhāna) D.III,83 (≈Vin.II,162,255); A.I,123; II,180; J.I.218,219.

3.(Specialised) an “act” in an ecclesiastical sense; proceedings,ceremony,performed by a lawfully constituted chapter of bhikkhus Vin.I,49,53,144,318; II,70,93; V,220 sq.; Khus J.P.T.S.1883,101.At these formal functions a motion is put before the assembly and the announcement of it is called the ñatti Vin.I,56,after which the bhikkhus are asked whether they approve of the motion or not.If this question is put once,it is a ñattidutiyakamma Vin.II,89; if put three times,a ñatticatuttha° Vin.I,56 (cp.Vin.Texts I.169 n2).There are 6 kinds of official acts the Saṅgha can perform:see Vin.I,317 sq.; for the rules about the validity of these ecclesiastical functions see Vin.I,312--333 (cp.Vin T.II.256--285).The most important ecclesiastical acts are:apalokanakamma,ukkhepanīya° uposatha° tajjaniya° tassapāpiyyasikā° nissaya°,patiññākaraṇīya°,paṭipucchākaraṇīya° paṭisāraṇiya° pabbājaniya°,sammukhākaraṇīya°.-- In this sense:kammaṁ karoti (w.Gen.) to take proceedings against Vin.I,49,143,317; II,83,260; kammaṁ garahati to find fault with proceedings gone through Vin.II,5; kammaṁ paṭippassambheti to revoke official proceedings against a bhikkhu Vin.III,145.

4.In cpds.:-âdhiṭṭhāyaka superintendent of work,inspector Mhvs 5,174; 30,98;-âdhipateyya one whose supremacy is action Miln.288; -ārambha commencement of an undertaking Mhvs 28,21; -âraha (a) entitled to take part in the performance of an “act” Vin.IV,153; V,221; --ārāma (a) delighting in activity D.II,77; A.IV,22; It.71,79; -ārāmatā taking pleasure in (worldly) activity D.II,78=A.IV,22,cp.Vbh.381; A.III,116,173,293 sq.,330,449; IV,22 sq.,331; V,163; It.71; âvadāna a tale of heroic deeds J.VI,295; -kara or °kāra:used indiscriminately.1.(adj.) doing work,or active,in puriso dāso+pubbuṭṭhāyī “willing to work” D.I,60 et sim.(=DA.I,168:analaso).A.I,145; II,67; Vv 754; 2.(n.) a workman,a servant (a weaver?) usually in form dāsā ti vā pessā ti vā kammakarā ti vā Vin.I,243; D.I,141=Pug.56 (also °kārā); A.II,208; III,77,172; Th.2,340; J.I,57.Also as dāsā pessā k°kārā A.III,37=IV.265,393,and dāsā k° kārā Vin.I,240,272; II,154; D.III,191; S.I,92;--a handyman J.I,239; Miln.378; (f) --ī a female servant Vin.II,267; °kāra Vin.IV,224,kārī Dhs.A98=VvA.73 (appl.to a wife); -karaṇa 1.working,labour,service J.III,219; PvA.120; DA.I,168; 2.the effects of karma J.I,146; -karanā and kāraṇā see below; -kāma liking work,industrious; a° lazy A.IV,93=J.II,348; -kāraka a workman,a servant DA.I,8; Mhvs 30,42; Nd2 427; a sailor J.IV,139; -garu bent on work Miln.288; -ccheda the interruption of work J.I,149; 246; III,270; --jāta sort of action J.V,24 (=kammam eva); -dhura (m.nt.) draught-work J.I,196; -dheyya work to be performed,duty A.IV,285=325; cp.J.VI,297; -dhoreyya “fit to bear the burden of action” Miln.288 (cp.Mil.trsl.II.140); --niketavā having action as one’s house or temple ibid.; -nipphādana accomplishing the business J.VI,162; -ppatta entitled o take part in an eccles.act Vin.I,318; V,221; -bahula abounding in action (appl.to the world of men) Miln.7; -mūla the price of the transaction Miln.334; -rata delighting in business D.II,78; It.71; -vatthu objects,items of an act Vin.V,116; -vācā the text or word of an official Act.These texts form some of the oldest literature and are embodied in the Vinaya (cp.Vin.I,317 sq.; III,174,176; IV,153,etc.).The number of officially recognized k° is eleven,see J.P.T.S.1882,1888,1896,1907; k°ṁ karoti to carry out an official Act Mhvs 5,207; DhsA.399; --°ṁ anussāveti to proclaim a k°,to put a resolution to a chapter of bhikkhus Vin.I,317; -vossagga difference of occupation J.VI,216; -sajja (a) “ready for action,” i.e.for battle J.V,232; -sādutā “agreeableness to work” DhsA.151 (cp.kammaññatā & kamyatā); --sāmin “a master in action,” an active man Miln.288; -sippī an artisan VvA.278; -sīla one whose habit it is to work,energetic,persevering Miln.288; indolent,lazy J.VI,245; a°-ttaṁ indolence,laziness Mhvs 23,21; --hīna devoid of occupation,inactive Miln.288.

II.Applied (pregnant) meaning:doing,acting with ref.to both deed and doer.It is impossible to draw a clear line between the source of the act (i.e.the acting subject,the actor) and the act (either the object or phenomenon acted,produced,i.e.the deed as objective phenomenon,or the process of acting,i.e.the deed as subjective phenomenon).Since the latter (the act) is to be judged by its consequences,its effects,its manifestation always assumes a quality (in its most obvious characteristics either good or bad or indifferent),and since the act reflects on the actor,this quality is also attached to him.This is the popular,psychological view,and so it is expressed in language,although reason attributes goodness and badness to the actor first,and then to the act.In the expression of language there is no difference between:1.the deed as such and the doer in character:anything done (as good or bad) has a corresponding source; 2.the performance of the single act and the habit of acting:anything done tends to be repeated; 3.the deed with ref.both to its cause and its effect:anything done is caused and is in itself the cause of something else.As meanings of kamma we therefore have to distinguish the foll.different sides of a “deed,” viz.

1.the deed as expressing the doer’s will,i.e.qualified deed,good or bad; 2.the repeated deed as expression of the doer’s habit=his character; 3.the deed as having consequences for the doer,as such a source qualified according to good and evil; as deed done accumulated and forming a deposit of the doer’s merit and demerit (his “karma”).Thus pāpakamma=a bad deed,one who has done a bad deed,one who has a bad character,the potential effect of a bad deed=bad karma.The context alone decides which of these meanings is the one intended by the speaker or writer.

Concerning the analysis of the various semantic developments the following practical distinctions can be made:1.Objective action,characterized by time:as past=done,meaning deed (with kata); or future=to be done,meaning duty (with kātabba).2.Subjective action,characterized by quality,as reflecting on the agent.3.Interaction of act and agent:(a) in subjective relation,cause and effect as action and reaction on the individual (individual “karma,” appearing in his life,either here or beyond),characterized as regards action (having results) and as regards actor (having to cope with these results):(b) in objective relation,i.e.abstracted from the individual and generalized as Principle,or cause and effect as Norm of Happening (universal “karma,” appearing in Saṁsāra,as driving power of the world),characterized (a) as cause,(b) as consequence,(c) as cause-consequence in the principle of retribution (talio),(d) as restricted to time.

1.(Objective):with ref.to the Past:kiṁ kammaṁ akāsi nārī what (deed) has this woman done? Pv.I,92; tassā katakammaṁ pucchi he asked what had been done by her PvA.37,83,etc.-- with ref.to the Future:k.kātabbaṁ hoti I have an obligation,under 8 kusītavatthūni D.III,255=A.IV,332; cattāri kammāni kattā hoti “he performs the 4 obligations” (of gahapati) A.II,67.

2.(Subjective) (a) doing in general,acting,action,deed; var.kinds of doings enum.under micchājīva D.I,12 (santikamma,paṇidhi°,etc.); tassa kammassa katattā through (the performance of) that deed D.III,156; dukkaraṁ kamma-kubbataṁ he who of those who act,acts badly S.I,19; abhabbo taṁ kammaṁ kātum incapable of doing that deed S.III,225; sañcetanika k.deed done intentionally M.III,207; A.V,292 sq.; pamāṇakataṁ k.D.I,251=S.IV,322.kataraṁ k°ṁ karonto ahaṁ nirayaṁ na gaccheyyaṁ? how (i.e.what doing) shall I not go to Niraya? J.IV,340; yaṁ kiñci sithilaṁ k°ṁ ...na taṁ hoti mahapphalaṁ ...S.I,49=Dh.312=Th.1,277; kadariya° a stingy action PvA.25; k.classed with sippa,vijjā-caraṇa D.III,156; kāni k°āni sammā-niviṭṭha established slightly in what doings? Sn.324; (b) Repeated action in general,constituting a person’s habit of acting or character (cp.kata II.1.a.); action as reflecting on the agent or bearing his characteristics; disposition,character.Esp.in phrase kammena samannāgata “endowed with the quality of acting in such and such a manner,being of such and such character”:tīhi dhammehi samannāgato niraye nikkhitto “endowed with (these) three qualites a man will go to N.” A.I,292 sq.; asucinā kāyak°ena sam° asucimanussā “bad people are those who are of bad ways (or character)” Nd2 112; anavajja kāya-k° sam° A.II,69 (cp.A.IV,364); kāya-kammavacī-kammena sam° kusalena (pabbajita) “a bhikkhu of good character in deed and speech” D.I,63; kāya ...(etc.) --k°sam° bāla (and opp.paṇḍita) A.II,252 (cp.A.I,102,104); visamena kāya (etc.) --k° sam° A.I,154=III,129; sāvajjena kāya (etc.) --k° sam° A.II,135 -- kammaṁ vijjā ca dhammo ca sīlaṁ jīvitam uttamaṁ,etena maccā sujjhanti,na gottena dhanena vā S.I,34=55; M.III,262,quoted at Vism.3,where k.is grouped with vipassanā,jhāna,sīla,satipaṭṭhāna as main ideals of virtue; kammanā by character,as opp.to jaccā or jātiyā,by birth:Sn.136; 164; 599; nihīna° manussā (of bad,wretched character) Sn.661; manāpena bahulaṁ kāya (etc.) --kammena A.II,87=III,33,131; and esp.with mettā,as enum.under aparihāniyā and sārāṇīyā dhammā D.II,80; A.III,288; mettena kāya‹-› (etc.)--kammena D.II,144; III,191; A.V,350 sq.(c) Particular actions,as manifested in various ways,by various channels of activity (k°-dvārā),expressions of personality,as by deed,word and thought (kāyena,vācāya,manasā).Kamma kat) e)coxήn means action by hand (body) in formula vacasā manasā kammanā ca Sn.330,365; later specified by kāya-kamma,for which kāya-kammanta in some sense (q.v.),and complementing vacī-k° mano-k°; so in foll.combns:citte arakkhite kāya-k° pi arakkhitaṁ hoti (vacī° mano°) A.I,261 sq.; yaṁ nu kho ahaṁ idaṁ kāyena k° kattukāmo idaṁ me kāya-k° attabyādhāya pi saṁvatteyya ...“whatever deed I am going to do with my hands (I have to consider:) is this deed,done by my hands,likely to bring me evil?” M.I,415; kāya-(vacī- etc.) kamma,which to perform & to leave (sevitabbaṁ and a°) A.I,110=III,150; as anulomika° A.I,106; sabbaṁ kāya-k° (vacī° mano°) Buddhassa ñāṇânuparivattati “all manifestation of deed (word & thought) are within the knowledge of Buddha” Nd2 235; yaṁ lobhapakataṁ kammaṁ karoti kāyena vā vācāya vā manasā vā tassa vipākaṁ anubhoti ...Nett 37; kin nu kāyena v° m° dukkaṭaṁ kataṁ what evil have you done by body,word or thought? Pv.II,13 and freq.; ekūna-tiṁsa kāyakammāni Bdhd 49.(d) Deeds characterized as evil (pāpa-kammāni,pāpāni k°,pāpakāni k°; pāpakamma adj.,cp.pāpa-kammanta adj.).pāpakamma: n’atthi loke raho nāma p° pakubbato “there is no hiding (-place) in this world for him who does evil” A.I,149; so p°-o dummedho jānaṁ dukkaṭaṁ attano ...“he,afflicted with (the result of) evil-doing ...” A.III,354; p°-ṁ pavaḍḍhento ibid.; yaṁ p°-ṁ kataṁ sabban taṁ idha vedanīyaṁ “whatever wrong I have done I have to suffer for” A.V,301; pabbajitvāna kāyena p°-ṁ vivajjayī “avoid evil acting” Sn.407; nissaṁsayaṁ p°-ṁ ...“undoubtedly there is some evil deed (the cause of this) i.e.some evil karma Pv IV.161.-pāpaṁ kammaṁ: appamattikam pi p° k° kataṁ taṁ enaṁ nirayaṁ upaneti “even a small sin brings man to N.” A.I,249,tayā v’etaṁ p° k° kataṁ tvañ ñeva etassa vipākaṁ paṭisaṁvedissasi “you yourself have done this sin you yourself shall feel its consequences” M.III,180= A.I,139,na hi p° kataṁ k° sajju khīraṁ va muccati Dh.71=Nett 161; yassa p° kataṁ k° kusalena pithīyati so imaṁ lokaṁ pabhāseti “he will shine in this world who covers an evil deed with a good one” M.II,104= Dh.173=Th.1,872; p°-ssa k°-ssa samatikkamo “the overcoming of evil karma” S.IV,320; p°ssa k°ssa kiriyāya “in the performance of evil” M.I,372; p°āni k°āni karaṁ bālo na bujjhati “he,like a fool,awaketh not,doing sinful deeds” Dh.136=Th.1,146; pāpā p°ehi k°ehi nirayaṁ upapajjare “sinners by virtue of evil deeds go to N.” Dh.307; te ca p°esu k°esu abhiṇham upadissare Sn.140.-pāpakāni kammāni: p°ānaṁ k°ānaṁ hetu coraṁ rājāno gāhetvā vividhā kammakāraṇā kārenti “for his evil deeds the kings seize the thief and have him punished” A.I,48; ye loke p°āni k° karonti te vividhā kamma-kāraṇā karīyanti “those who do evil deeds in this world,are punished with various punishments” M.III,186=A.I,142; k°ṁ karoti p°ṁ kāyena vācā uda cetasā vā Sn.232 (=kh 190); similarly Sn.127; karontā p°ṁ k°ṁ yaṁ hoti kaṭukapphalaṁ,“doing evil which is of bitter fruit” Dh.66= S.I,57=Nett 131; k°ehi p°ehi Sn.215.-- In the same sense:na taṁ k°ṁ kataṁ sādhu yaṁ katvā anutappati “not well done is that deed for which he feels remorse” S.I,57=Dh.67=Nett 132; āveni-kammāni karonti (with ref.to saṅgha-bheda) A.V,74; adhammikakammāni A.I,74; asuci-k°āni (as suggested by 5 and attributes:asuci,duggandha,etc.) A.III,269; sāvajjakammāni (as deserving Niraya) (opp.avajja › sagga) A.II,237; kammāni ānantarikāni deeds which have an immediate effect; there are five,enumd at Vbh.378.‹-› (e) deeds characterized as good or meritorious (kusala bhaddaka,etc.) taṁ k°ṁ katvā kusalaṁ sukhudrayaṁ D.III,157; puñña-kammo of meritorious (character) S.I,143; kusalehi k°ehi vippayuttā carati viññāṇacariyā Ps.I,80; kusalassa k°ssa katattā Vbh.173 sq.; 266 sq.; 297 sq.; kusala-k°-paccayāni Bdhd 12; puññakamma,merit,compd with kapparukkha in its rewarding power VvA.32 (cp.puññânubhāva-nissandena “in consequence of their being affected with merit” PvA.58) -- Cp.also cpds.:kamma-kilesa,k°-ṭṭhāna,k°-patha; k°lakkhaṇa k°-samādāna.

3.(Interaction) A.in subjective relation; (a) character of interaction as regards action; action or deed as having results:phala and vipāka (fruit and maturing); both expressions being used either singly or jointly,either°-or independtphala: tassa mayhaṁ atīte katassa kammassa phalaṁ “the fruit of a deed done by me in former times” ThA.270; Vv 479 (=VvA.202); desanā ...k-phalaṁ paccakkhakāriṇī “an instruction demonstrating the fruit of action” PvA.1; similarly PvA.2; cp.also ibid.26,49,52,82 (v.l.for kammabala).vipāka: yassa k°ssa vipākena ...niraye pacceyyāsi ...“through the ripening of whatever deed will you be matured (i.e.tortured) in N.” M.II,104; tassa k°ssa vipākena saggaṁ lokaṁ uppajji “by the result of that deed he went to Heaven” S.I,92; II,255; k-vipāka-kovida “well aware of the fruit of action,” i.e.of retribution Sn.653; kissa kvipākena “through the result of what (action)” Pv.I,65; inunā asubhena k-vipākena Nett 160; k-vipāka with ref.to avyākata-dhammā:Vbh.182; with ref.to jhāna ibid.268,281; with ref.to dukkha ibid.106; k-vipāka-ja produced by the maturing of (some evil) action,as one kind of ābādha,illness:A.V,110=Nd2 3041; same as result of good action,as one kind of iddhi (supernatural power) Ps.II,174; --vipāka (adj.).asakkaccakatānaṁ kammānaṁ vipāko the reaper of careless deeds A.IV,393; der.vepakka (adj.) in dukkha-vepakka resulting in pain Sn.537.-phala+vipāka: freq.in form.sukaṭa dukkhaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko:D.I,55=III,264=M.I,401=S.IV,348=A.I,268=IV.226= V.265,286 sq.; cp.J.P.T.S.1883,8; nissanda-phalabhūto vipāko ThA.270; tiṇṇaṁ k°ānaṁ phalaṁ,tiṇṇaṁ k-ānaṁ vipāko D.II,186 -- (b) the effect of the deed on the doer:the consequences fall upon the doer,in the majority of cases expressed as punishment or affliction:yathā yathâyaṁ puriso kammaṁ karoti tathā tathā taṁ paṭisaṁvedissati “in whichever way this man does a deed,in the same way he will experience it (in its effect)” A.I,249; na vijjati so jagati-ppadeso yathā ṭhito muñceyya pāpa-kammā “there is no place in the world where you could escape the consequences of evil-doing” Dh.127=Miln.150=PvA.104,cp.Divy 532; so the action is represented as vedaniya,to be felt; in various combinations:in this world or the future state,as good or bad,as much or little A.IV,382; the agent is represented as the inheritor,possessor,of (the results of) his action in the old formula:kammassakā sattā k-dāyādā k-yonī k-bandhū ...yaṁ k°ṁ karonti kalyānaṁ vā pāpakaṁ vā tassa dāyādā bhavanti M.III,203=A.III,72 sq.=186=V.88~288 sq.(see also cpds.).The punishment is expressed by kammakaraṇa (or °kāraṇa),“being done back with the deed,” or the reaction of the deed,in phrase kamma-karaṇaṁ kāreti or kārāpeti “he causes the reaction of the deed to take place” and pass,kamma-karaṇā karīyati he is afflicted with the reaction,i.e.the punishment of his doing.The 5 main punishments in Niraya see under kāraṇaṁ,the usual punishments (beating with whips,etc.) are enumerated passim,e.g.M.III,164,181; and Nd2 604.[As regards form and meaning Morris J.P.T.S.1884,76 and 1893,15 proposes kāraṇā f.“pain,punishment,“ fr.kṝ to tear or injure,“the pains of karma,or torture”; Prof.Duroiselle follows him,but with no special reason:the derivation as nt.causative-abstr.fr.karoti presents no difficulty.] -- ye kira bho pāpakāni k°-āni karonti te diṭṭh’eva dhamme evarūpā vividhā k-kāraṇā karīyanti,kim aṅga pana parattha! “Those who,as you know,do evil are punished with various tortures even in this world,how much more then in the world to come!” M.III,181; M.III,186=A.I,142; sim.k°-kāraṇāni kārenti (v.l.better than text-reading) S.IV,344; Sdhp.7; Nd2 on dukkha.As k-karaṇaṁ saṁvidahiṁsu J.II,398; kamma-kāraṇa-ppatta one who undergoes punishment Vism.500.See also examples under 2d and M.I,87; A.I,47; J.V,429; Miln.197.

B.in objective relation:universal karma,law of cause and consequence.-- (a) karma as cause of existence (see also d,purāṇa° and pubbe kataṁ k°):compared to the fruitful soil (khetta),as substratum of all existence in kāma,rūpa,arūpa dhātu A.I,223 (kāmadhātu-vepakkañ ce kammaṁ nâbhavissa api nu kho kāmabhavo paññāyethā ti? No h’etaṁ ...iti kho kammaṁ khettaṁ ...); as one of the 6 causes or substrata of existence A.III,410; kammanā vattati loko kammanā vattati pajā “by means of karma the world goes on,mankind goes on” Sn.654; kamma-paccayā through karma PvA.25 (=Kh 207); k°ṁ kilesā hetu saṁsārassa “k.and passions are the cause of saṁsāra (renewed existence)” Nett 113; see on k.as principle:Ps.II,78; 79 (ch.VII.,kamma-kathā) M.I,372 sq.; Nett.161; 180--182; k.as 3 fold:Bdhd 117; as 4 fold M.III,215; and as cause in general Vism.600 (where enumd as one of the 4 paccaya’s or stays of rūpa,viz.k.,citta,utu,āhāra); Bdhd 63,57,116,134 sq.; Vbh.366; Miln.40 sq.as a factor in the five-fold order (dhammatā or niyama) of the cosmos:k°-niyama DA.on D 11,12; DhsA.272; Cp.cpds.:kammaja (resulting from karma) Bdhd 68,72,75; °-vātā,birth-pains i.e.the winds resulting from karma (caliṁsu) DhA.I,165; DhA.II,262; k°-nimitta Bdhd 11,57,62; k°-sambhava Bdhd 66; k°-samuṭṭhāna Vism.600; Bdhd 67,72; see further cpds.below.-- (b) karma as result or consequence.There are 3 kamma-nidānāni,factors producing karma and its effect:lobha,dosa,moha,as such (tīṇi nidānāni kammānaṁ samudayāya,3 causes of the arising of karma) described A.I,134=263=III,338=Nd2 517; so also A.V,86; 262; Vbh.208.With the cessation of these 3 the factor of karma ceases:lobha-kkhayā kamma-nidāna-saṁkhayo A.V,262.There are 3 other nidānāni as atīte anāgate paccuppanne chanda A.I,264.and 3 others as producing or inciting existence (called here kamma-bhava,consequential existence) are puñña,apuñña,ānejja (merit,demerit and immovability) Vbh.137=Nd2 471.-- (c) karma as causeconsequence:its manifestation consists in essential likeness between deed and result,cause and effect:like for like “as the cause,so the result.” Karma in this special sense is Retribution or Retaliation; a law,the working of which cannot be escaped (cp.Dh.127,as quoted above 3 A (b),and Pv.II,717:sace taṁ pāpakaṁ kammaṁ karissatha karotha vā,na vo dukkhā pamutt’atthi) -- na hi nassati kassaci kammaṁ “nobody’s (trace,result of) action is ever lost” Sn.666; puññâpuñña-kammassa nissandena kanaka vimāne ekikā hutvā nibbatti “through the consequence of both merit and demerit” PvA.47; cp.VvA.14; yatth’assa attabhāvo nibbattati tattha taṁ k°ṁ vipaccati “wherever a man comes to be born,there ripens his action” A.I,134; -- correspondence between “light” and “dark” deeds and their respective consequence are 4 fold:kaṇha-kamma›kaṇha vipāka,sukka°,kaṇhasukka,akaṇha-asukka:D.III,230=M.I,389=A.II,230 sq.; so sakena kammena nirayaṁ upapajjati Nd2 304III; k°-ânubhāva --ukkhitta “thrown,set into motion,by the power of k.” PvA.78; sucarita-k-ânubhavâvanibbattāni vimānāni “created by the power of their result of good conduct” VvA.127; k-ânubhāvena by the working of k.PvA.77; k°-vega-ukkhittā (same) PvA.284; yathā kamm-ûpaga “undergoing the respective consequences (of former deeds) affected with respective karma:see cpds.,and cp.yathā kammaṁ gato gone (into a new existence) according to his karma J.I,153 & freq.; see cpds.; k-sarikkhatā “the karma-likeness,” the correspondence of cause and consequence:taṁ k-s°ṁ vibhāventaṁ suvaṇṇamayaṁ ahosi “this,manifesting the karma-correspondence,was golden” VvA.6; so also k-sarikkhaka,in accordance with their deed,retributionary,of kamma-phalaṁ,the result of action:tassa kamma-sarikkhakaṁ kammaphalaṁ hoti “for her the fruit of action became like action,” i.e.the consequence was according to her deed.PvA.206; 284; 258; as nt.:k-s°ṁ pan’assa udapādi “the retribution for him has come” DhA.I,128; J.III,203; cp.also Miln.40 sq.; 65 sq.; 108.-- (d) The working and exhaustion of karma,its building up by new karma (nava°) and its destruction by expiration of old karma (purāṇa).The final annihilation of all result (°kkhaya) constitutes Arahantship.nava›purāṇa-kamma:as aparipakka,not ripe,and paropakka,ripe D.I,54=S.III,212; as pañca-kammuno satāni,etc.ibid.; kāyo ...purāṇaṁ k°ṁ abhisaṅkhataṁ (“our body is an accumulation of former karma”) S.II,65=Nd2 680 D; see also A.II,197; Pv IV.71; PvA.1,45; Nett 179; and with simile of the snake stripping its slough (porāṇassa k°ssa parikkhīṇattā ...santo yathā kammaṁ gacchati) PvA.63.-- k°-nirodha or °kkhaya:so ...na tāva kālaṁ karoti yāva na taṁ pāpakammaṁ vyanti hoti “He does not die so long as the evil karma is unexhausted” A.I,141≈; nava-purāṇāni k°āni desissāmi k°-nirodhaṁ k°-nirodha-gāminiñ ca paṭipadaṁ “the new and the old karma I shall demonstrate to you,the destruction of k.and the way which leads to the destruction of k.” S.IV,132~A.III,410; ...navānaṁ k°ānaṁ akaraṇā setughātaṁ; iti k-kkhayā dukkhakkhayo ...(end of misery through the end of karma) A.I,220=M.II,214; same Ps.I,55--57; cp.also A.I,263; Nd2 411 (expl.as kamma-parāyaṇa vipāka-p°:“gone beyond karma and its results,” i.e.having attained Nibbāna).See also the foll.cpds.:k°-âbhisaṅkhīsa,°āvaraṇa,°kkhaya,°nibandhana.

--âdhikata ruled by karma,Miln.67,68; °ena by the influence of k.ibid.--âdhiggahita gripped by karma Miln.188,189; --ânurūpa (adj.) (of vipāka) according to one’s karma J.III,160; DA.I,37; --âbhisaṅkhāra (3 B) accumulation of k.Nd2 116,283,506.--âbhisanda in °ena in consequence of k.Miln.276,cp.J.P.T.S.1886,146; --âraha see I.; --âyatana 1.work Vbh.324,cp.Miln.78; 2.action=kamma J.III,542; cp.J.IV,451,452.--âyūhana the heaping up of k.Vism.530; DhsA.267,268; cp.k°ṁ āyūhi Miln.214 and J.P.T.S.1885,58.--āvaraṇa the obstruction caused by k.A.III,436= Pug.13=Vbh.341 (in defin.of sattā abhabbā:kammāvaraṇena samannāgatā,kiles°,vipāk° ..),Kvu 341; Miln.154,155; Vism.177 (=ānantariya-kamma); --ūpaga in yatha kamm-û page satte:the beings as undergoing (the consequences of) their respective kamma (3B) in form.cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate ...pajānāti (or passati) Vin.III,5=D.I,82=S.II,122 (214)= V.266=A.IV,178=V.13 (35,200,340)=Vbh.344; abbreviated in M.III,178; Nett.178; see also similar Sn.587; Bdhd 111; --upacaya accumulation of k.Kvn A.156; --kathā exposition of k.; chapter in Ps.II,98; --kāma (adj.) desirous of good karma Th.2,275; PvA.174; a° opp.= inactive,indolent A.IV,92,PvA.174; --kiriyā-dassana (adj.) understanding the workings of k.J.I,45; --kiliṭṭha bad,evil k.Dh.15 (=DhA.I,129,expl.kiliṭṭha-k°); --kilesa (2) depravity of action,bad works,there are 4 enumd at D.III,181=J.III,321,as the non-performance of sīla 1--4 (see sīla),equal to pāpa-kāya-k°; --kkhaya (3 B) the termination,exhaustion of the influence of k.; its destruction:sabba-k°-kkhayaṁ patto vimutto upadhi-saṅkhaye S.I,134; as brought about by neutral,indifferent kamma:D.III,230=A.II,230 sq.; M.I,93,DhsA.89; --ja (3 B) produced by k.J.I,52; as one mode of the origin of disease Miln.135; Nd2 3041; appld.to all existence Miln.271; Vism.624 (kammajaṁ āyatanadvāra-vasena pākaṭaṁ hoti); appld to rūpa Vism.451,614; appl.to pains of childbirth (°vātā) J.I,52,DhA.I,165; a° not caused by k.,of ākāsa and nibbāna Miln.268,271; --ṭṭhāna (2) 1.a branch of industry or occupation,profession,said of diff.occupations as farmer,trader,householder and mendicant M.II,197; A.V,83.2.occasion or ground for (contemplating) kamma (see ṭhāna II.2.c.),kamma-subject,a technical term referring to the instruments of meditation,esp.objects used by meditation to realize impermanence.These exercises (“stations of exercise” Expos.224) are highly valued as leading to Arahantship DhA.I,8 (yāva arahattaṁ kamma-ṭṭhānaṁ kathesi),96; PvA.98 (catu-saccakamma-ṭṭhāna-bhāvanā meditation on the 4 truths and the objects of meditation).Freq.in phrase kammaṭṭhāne anuyutto (or anuyoga vasena) na cirass’eva arahattaṁ pāpuṇi:J.III,36; Sāsv 49; see also J.I,7,97,182,303,414; Sdhp.493.These subjects of meditation are given as 38 at DhsA.168 (cp.Cpd.202),as 32 (dvattiṁs’ākāra-k°) at Vism.240 sq.,as 40 at Vism.110 sq.(in detail); as pañca-sandhika at Vism.277; some of them are mentioned at J.I,116; DhA.I,221,336; IV,90; --°ṁ anuyuñjati to give oneself up to meditation Sāsv 151; PvA.61; --°ṁ uggaṇhāti to accept from his teacher a particular instrument of meditation Vism.277 sq.(also °assa uggaho & uggaṇhana); KhA 40; DhA.I,9,262; IV,106; PvA.42; --°ṁ katheti to teach a pupil how to meditate on one of the k° DhA.I,8,248,336; PvA.61; --°ṁ adāsi DhA.IV,106; °gaṇhāti J.III,246; Vism.89; °ācikkhana instruction in a formula of exercise DhsA.246; °dāyaka the giver of a k-ṭṭh° object,the spiritual adviser and teacher,who must be a kalyāṇamitta (q.v.),one who has entered the Path; Vism.89; Bdhd 89,91,cp.Vism.241; --ṭṭhānika a person practising kammaṭṭhāna Vism.97,187,189; DhA.I,335; --tappana the being depressed on acct.of one’s (bad) karma DhA.I,150. --dāyāda (3 A (b) and cp.°ssaka) the inheritor of k.,i.e.inheriting the consequences of one’s own deeds M.I,390; Miln.65=DhsA.66; --dvāra “the door of action,” i.e.the medium by which action is manifested (by kāya,vacī,mano) (s.2b) J.IV,14; KvuA 135; DhsA.82; Bdhd 8; --dhāraya name of a class of noun-compounds Kacc 166; --nānatta manifoldness of k.DhsA.64 (also --nānākaraṇa ib.); --nibandhana (3 B) bound to k.(:rathass’āṇī va yāyato,as the linchpin to the cart) Sn.654; --nibbatta (3 B) produced through k.Miln.268; DhsA.361; --nimitta the sign,token of k.DhsA.411; --nirodha the destruction of k.[see 3 B (d)]; --paccaya the ground,basis of karma Vism.538; KvuA 101
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
KAMMA:[nt] sự làm,hành vi,việc làm --kara,--karā [m] nhân công,lao công --karaṇa [nt] công việc,lao công,việc làm --kāraṇā [nt] hình phạt,khổ sai --kāraka [nt] trường hợp về đối tượng,mục tiêu --kkhaya [m] tiêu tan,dứt nghiệp --ja [a] do nghiệp tạo ra --jāta [nt] nhiều loại nghiệp,nhiều nghề nghiệp --dā,--yāda [a] thọ lãnh kết quả nghiệp do mình tạo --nānatta [nt] có nhiều loại nghiệp --nibbatta [a] do nghiệp tạo ra --patha [m] con đường của nghiệp --ppaccaya [a] có nghiệp là nguyên nhân,căn bản --phala [nt] kết quả của nghiệp --bandhu [a] nghiệp là thân bằng quyến thuộc --bala [nt] nghiệp lực --yoni [a] nghiệp là nơi sanh ra --vāda [m] lý thuyết tin về nghiệp lực --vādī [a] tin về nghiệp --vipāka [m] sự kết quả của nghiệp mình đã tạo --vaga [m] sự xô đẩy,thúc giục của nghiệp --samuṭṭhā,--na [a] phát sanh lên do nghiệp --sambhava [a] sản xuất do nơi nghiệp --sarikkhaka [a] giống nhau trong kết quả của hành vi --saka [a] nghiệp là gia tài của mình --javātā [m] việc khổ sở,gió nghiệp của đứa trẻ khi sanh [a] --ānurūpa [a] tùy theo duyên nghiệp --aỳuhana [nt] sự đầy dẫy của nghiệp tạo --upaccaya [m] sự tích trữ nghiệp
Pali Viet Vinaya Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ về luật do tỳ khưu Giác Nguyên sưu tầm.
kamma:tên gọi chung các tăng sự
Pali Viet Abhidhamma Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ Vô Tỷ Pháp của ngài Tịnh Sự, được chép từ phần ghi chú thuật ngữ trong các bản dịch của ngài.
kamma:nghiệp,sự hành động,công việc
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
kamma:ကမၼ(န)
[ကရ+ရမၼ။ ကရီယတီတိ ကမၼံ။ ႐ူ။ ၅၈၉။]
(၁) ကံ (ကုသိုလ္ အကုသိုလ္ကံ ဝိနည္းကံ)။ (၂) ပရိကံ (သမထဘာဝနာ,ဝိပႆနာဘာဝနာ စီးျဖန္းပြါးမ်ားျခင္း)။ (၃) အားထုတ္ျခင္း၊ လုံ႔လ။ (၄) အမႈကိစၥ၊ အလုပ္။ (၅) ကမၼဝါစာ။ ကမၼပါဒက-ၾကည့္။ (၆) ကမၼကာရက။ ကမၼသံေယာဂ-ၾကည့္။ (၇) ႀကိယာ။ ကမၼပၸဝစနီယ-ၾကည့္။ (တိ) (၈) ျပဳတတ္ေသာ။ ကမၼကတ-(၁)-ၾကည့္။ မူရင္းၾကည့္ပါ။
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
kamma:ကမၼ(န)
[ကမု+ရမၼ]
အလိုရွိအပ္ေသာအက်ိဳး။
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
kamma:ကမၼ (န) (√ကရ္+မ)
ျပဳျခင္း။ အမႈ။ အမႈသစ္။ ႀကိယာ။ ကုသိုလ္ အကုသိုလ္ကံ။

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