Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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This site is online Pāḷi Dictionary (Pāli to Chinese, Pāli to English, Pāli to Japanese, Pāli-Vietnamese, Pāli-Burmese). The source of the dictionaries come from Pali Canon E-Dictionary Version 1.94 (PCED). The source code of this website is at pali repository on GitHub, and the data of this website is at data repository on GitHub. Any suggestion or questions? Welcome to contact me.

漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
kāma:m.n.[〃] 欲,愛欲,欲念,欲情,欲樂.acc.kāmaṃ adv.寧可,寧願,與其~不如~; 由個人自己決定,隨(個人)便,隨個人意願 [要不要隨你(便),由你自己決定].-ajjhosāna 欲著.-avacara 欲界,欲纏,欲行.-ogha 欲流.-kaṇṭaka 欲的荊刺(刺痛苦惱).-guṇa 妙欲,[五]種欲.-cchanda 愛欲,貪欲.-taṇhā 欲愛.-dhātu 欲界.-nandī 欲喜.-bhava 欲有.-bhogin 行欲者,愛欲者.-mucchā 欲迷,-yoga 欲軛.-raja 欲塵.-rati 欲樂.-rāga 欲貪.-vitakka 欲尋.-saṅkappa 欲思惟.-saṃyojana 欲縛.-sukhallika 欲樂,愛樂.
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
kāma:m.n.[〃] 欲,愛欲,欲念,欲情,欲楽.acc.kāmaṃ adv.むしろ,勝手に.-ajjhosāna 欲着.-avacara 欲界,欲纏,欲行.-ogha 欲流.-kaṇṭaka 欲の荊(いばら).-guṇa 妙欲,[五] 種欲.-cchanda 愛欲,貪欲.-taṇhā 欲愛.-dhātu 欲界.-nandī 欲喜.-bhava 欲有.-bhogin 行欲者,愛欲者.-mucchā 欲迷,-yoga 欲軛.-raja 欲塵.-rati 欲楽.-rāga 欲貪.-vitakka 欲尋.-saṅkappa 欲思惟.-saṃyojana 欲縛.-sukhallika 欲楽,愛楽.
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Kāma,【陽】 快樂,貪欲,樂趣,官能享樂的對象。 ~giddha,貪欲,貪婪於官能享受。 ~guṇa,【陽】 情欲,官能上的享受。 ~gedha,【陽】 執情,執著於官能享受。~cchanda,【陽】 激情,官能享受的刺激。~taṇhā,【陰】戀情,對官能享受之渴望。 ~da,~dada,【形】 情施,給予的都是很想要的東西。~dhātu 【陰】 情欲世界。~paṅka,【陽】 貪欲的泥沼。~pariḷāha,【陽】 灼熱的情感。 ~bhava,【陽】 欲界。 ~bhogī,【形】 享受感覺的快樂。 ~mucchā,【陰】 官能上的麻木。 ~rati,【陰】好色,情癡,多情的享樂。~rāga,【陽】激情。~loka,【陽】 情欲世界。~vitakka,【陽】 情思,情欲的思緒。~saṅkappa,【陽】 情欲的抱負。~saññojana,【中】 情欲的妨害。 ~sukha,【中】 情欲的快樂。 ~sevanā,【陰】 (沈溺於)行房。(p99)
《巴漢詞典》明法尊者增訂
Kāma,(cp.Vedic kāma),【陽】【中】貪欲(性愛),想要(不一定是貪),快樂,樂趣,官能享樂的對象。kāmagiddha,貪欲,貪婪於官能享受。kāmaguṇa,【陽】情欲,官能上的享受。kāmagedha,【陽】執情,執著於官能享受。kāmacchanda,【陽】激情,官能享受的刺激。kāmataṇhā,【陰】戀情,對官能享受之渴望。kāmada,kāmadada,【形】情施,給予的都是很想要的東西。kāmadhātu 【陰】情欲世界。kāmapaṅka,【陽】貪欲的泥沼。kāmapariḷāha,【陽】灼熱的情感。kāmapaṅkabhava,【陽】欲界。kāmabhogī,【形】享受的財物。kāmamucchā,【陰】官能上的麻木。kāmarati,【陰】好色,情癡,多情的享樂。kāmarāga,【陽】激情。kāmaloka,【陽】情欲世界。kāmavitakka,【陽】欲尋,情欲的思緒。kāmasaṅkappa,【陽】情欲的抱負。kāmasaññojana,【中】情欲的妨害。kāmasukha,【中】情欲的快樂。kāmasevanā,【陰】(沈溺於)行房。M.22./I,130.(蛇喻經)︰Appassādā kāmā vuttā Bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā,ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo.(世尊說欲(kāmā)是樂少,苦多、惱多,此處災患更倍增),說喻作:1.骸骨(aṭṭhikaṅkala骷髏,現外形,如露白骨;或如狗啃骨,不能療饑);2.肉臠(maṁsapesi﹐臠ㄌㄨㄢˊ﹐肉片、肉段。眾鳥競逐);3.乾草炬(tiṇukkā草火把,如向風執炬逆走,若不放舍,必為所燒);4.炭窩(aṅgārakāsu火坑,若墮火坑,必死無疑,設不死者,定受極苦);5.夢(supinaka醒時全空);借用物(yācitaka債主終必索還);6.樹果(rukkhaphala於樹下若不躲避,終必被鋸之樹所傷);7.屠宰場(asisūna必招宰殺);8.長矛(sattisūla有被傷害的危險)。又參見《中阿含》200經》阿黎咤經》(T1.763)、《中阿含》202經》持齋經》大正1.774下~775上)、《別譯雜阿含185經》(T2.440上)。
四念住課程開示集要巴利語字匯(葛印卡)
kāma: 情欲、感官的欲望
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
kāma: kāma(pu)
ကာမ(ပု)
[kāma+bhava.kāmabhavo kā mo,uttarapadalopena.dī,ṭī,3.188.anuṭī,3.4va.]
[ကာမ+ဘဝ။ ကာမဘေဝါ ကာ ေမာ၊ ဥတၱရပဒေလာေပန။ ဒီ၊ ဋီ၊ ၃။ ၁၈၈။ အႏုဋီ၊ ၃။ ၄ဝ။]
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
kāma: kāma(pu,na)
ကာမ(ပု၊န)
[kamu+ṇa.kāmetīti kāmo...kāmiyatīti kāmo.abhi,ṭṭha,1.1va4.]
[ကမု+ဏ။ ကာေမတီတိ ကာေမာ...ကာမိယတီတိ ကာေမာ။ အဘိ၊ ႒၊ ၁။ ၁ဝ၄။]
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
kāma:Vatthu-k. and kilesa-k. are probably found for the first time in MNid.1.They correspond to the pañca kāmaguṇācakkhu-viññeyyā rūpā ,etc.) and kāma-rāga in the older sutta texts (e.g A.VI,68).
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
kāma,may denote:1.subjective sensuality,'sense-desire'; 2.objective sensuality,the five sense-objects.

1.Subjective sensuality,or sense-desire,is directed to all five sense-objects,and is synonymous with kāma-cchanda,'sensuous desire',one of the 5 hindrances (nīvaraṇa,q.v.); kāma-rāga,sensuous lust',one of the ten fetters (saṃyojana,q.v.); kāma-taṇhā,'sensuous craving',one of the 3 cravings (taṇhā,q.v.); kāma-vitakka,'sensuous thought',one of the 3 wrong thoughts (micchā-saṅkappa; s.vitakka).- Sense-desire is also one of the cankers (āsava,q.v.) and clingings (upādāna,q.v.).

2.Objective sensuality is,in the canonical texts,mostly called kāma-guṇa,'cords (or strands) of sensuality'.

"There are 5 cords of sensuality:the visible objects,cognizable by eye-consciousness,that are desirable,cherished,pleasant,lovely,sensuous and alluring; the sounds ...smells ...tastes ...bodily impressions cognizable by body-consciousness,that are desirable ...." (D.33; M.13,26,59,66).

These two kinds of kāma are called 1.kilesa-kāma,i.e.kāma as a mental defilement,2.vatthu-kāma,i.e.kāma as the object-base of sensuality; first in MNid..I,p.1,and frequently in the commentaries.

Sense-desire is finally eliminated at the stage of the Non-Returner (Anāgāmī; s.ariya-puggalasaṃyojana).

The peril and misery of sense-desire is often described in the texts,e.g.in stirring similes at M.22,54,and in the 'gradual instruction' (s.ānupubbī-kathā).See further M.13,45,75; Sn.v.766ff.; Dhp.186,215.

The texts often stress the fact that what fetters man to the world of the senses are not the sense-organs nor the sense-objects but lustful desire (chandarāga).On this see A.VI,63; S.XXXV,122,191.- (App.).
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
kāma,(m.),pleasure; lust; enjoyment; an object of sexual enjoyment.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Kāma,(m.nt.) [Dhtp (603) & Dhtm (843) paraphrase by “icchāyaṁ,” cp.Vedic kāma,kam=Idg.*qā] to desire,cp.Lat.carus,Goth.hōrs,E whore.-- 1.Objective:pleasantness,pleasure-giving,an object of sensual enjoyment; -- 2.subjective:(a) enjoyment,pleasure on occasion of sense,(b) sense-desire.Buddhist commentators express 1 and 2 by kāmiyatī ti kāmo,and kametī ti kāmo Cpd.81,n.2.Kāma as sense-desire and enjoyment plus objects of the same is a collective name for all but the very higher or refined conditions of life.The kāma-bhava or --loka (worlds of sensedesire) includes 4 of the 5 modes (gati’s) of existence and part of the fifth or deva-loka.See Bhava.The term is not found analyzed till the later books of the Canon are consulted,thus,Nd1 1 distinguishes (1) vatthukāmā:desires relating to a base,i.e.physical organ or external object,and (2) kilesakāmā:desire considered subjectively.So also Nd2 202,quoted DhA.II,162; III,240; and very often as ubho kāmā.A more logical definition is given by Dhammapāla on Vv 11 (VvA.11).He classifies as follows:1.manāpiyā rūpādi-visayā.-- 2.chandarāga.-- 3.sabbasmiṁ lobha.-- 4.gāmadhamma.-- 5.hitacchanda.-- 6.serībhāva,i.e.k.concerned with (1) pleasant objects,(2) impulsive desire,(3) greed for anything,(4) sexual lust,(5) effort to do good,(6) self-determination.

In all enumerations of obstacles to perfection,or of general divisions and definitions of mental conditions,kāma occupies the leading position.It is the first of the five obstacles (nīvaraṇāni),the three esanās (longings),the four upādānas (attachments),the four oghas (floods of worldly turbulence),the four āsavas (intoxicants of mind),the three taṇhās,the four yogas; and k.stands first on the list of the six factors of existence:kāmā,vedanā,saññā,āsavā,kamma,dukkha,which are discussed at A.III,410 sq.as regards their origin,difference,consequences,destruction and remedy.‹-› Kāma is most frequently connected with rāga (passion),with chanda (impulse) and gedha (greed),all expressing the active,clinging,and impulsive character of desire.‹-› The foll.is the list of synonyms given at various places for kāma-cchanda:(1) chanda,impulse; (2) rāga,excitement; (3) nandī,enjoyment; (4) taṇhā,thirst; (5) sineha,love; (6) pipāsā,thirst; (7) pariḷāha,consuming passion; (8) gedha,greed; (9) mucchā,swoon,or confused state of mind; (10) ajjhosāna,hanging on,or attachment Nd1.At Nd2 200; Dhs.1097 (omitting No.8),cp.DhsA.370; similarly at Vism.569 (omitting Nos.6 and 8),cp.Dhs.1214; Vbh.375.This set of 10 characteristics is followed by kām-ogha,kāma-yoga,kām-upādāna at Nd2 200,cp.Vism.141 (kām-ogha,°āsava,°upādāna).Similarly at D.III,238:kāme avigata-rāga,°chanda,°pema,°pipāsa,°pariḷāha,°taṇha.See also kāma-chanda below under cpds.In connection with synonyms it may be noticed that most of the verbs used in a kāma-context are verbs the primary meaning of which is “adhering to” or “grasping,” hence,attachment; viz.esanā (iṣ to Lat ira),upādāna (upa + ā + dā taking up),taṇhā (tṛṣ,Lat.torreo=thirst) pipāsā (the wish to drink),sineha (snih,Lat.nix=melting),etc.-- On the other hand,the reaction of the passions on the subject is expressed by khajjati “to be eaten up” pariḍayhati “to be burnt,” etc.The foll.passage also illustrates the various synonymic expressions:kāme paribhuñjati,kāmamajjhe vasati,kāma-pariḷāhena pariḍayhati,kāmavitakkehi khajjati,kāma-pariyesanāyā ussukko,A.I,68; cp.M.I,463; III,129.Under this aspect kāma is essentially an evil,but to the popular view it is one of the indispensable attributes of bliss and happiness to be enjoyed as a reward of virtue in this world (mānussakāmā) as well as in the next (dibbā kāmā).See kāmāvacara about the various stages of next-world happiness.Numerous examples are to be found in Pv and Vv,where a standing Ep.of the Blest is sabbakāmasamiddha “fully equipped with all objects of pleasure,” e.g.Pv.I,105; PvA.46.The other-world pleasures are greater than the earthly ones:S.V,409; but to the Wise even these are unsatisfactory,since they still are signs of,and lead to,rebirth (kāmûpapatti,It (4):api dibbesu kāmesu ratiṁ so nâdhigacchati Dh.187; rāgaṁ vinayetha mānusesu dibbesu kāmesu cāpi bhikkhu Sn.361,see also It.94.-- Kāma as sensual pleasure finds its most marked application in the sphere of the sexual:kāmesu micchācārin,transgressing in lusts,sinning in the lusts of the flesh,or violating the third rule of conduct equivalent to abrahmacariyā,inchastity (see sīla) Pug.38,39; It.63,etc.itthi-kāmehi paricāreti “he enjoys himself with the charms of woman” S.IV,343.Kāmesu brahmacariyavā practising chastity Sn.1041.Kāmatthā for sexual amusement A.III,229.

Redemption from kāma is to be effected by selfcontrol (saṁyama) and meditation (jhāna),by knowledge,right effort and renunciation.“To give up passion” as a practice of him who wishes to enter on the Path is expressed by:kāmānaṁ pahānaṁ,kāmasaññānaṁ pariññā,kāma-pipāsānaṁ-paṭivinayo,kāmavitakkānaṁ samugghāto kāma-pariḷāhānaṁ vūpasamo Vin.III,111; --kāmesu (ca) appaṭibaddhacitto “uddhaṁsoto” ti vuccati:he whose mind is not in the bonds of desire is called “one who is above the stream” Dh.218; cp.Th.2,12; -- tasmā jantu sadā sato kāmāni parivajjaye Sn.771; -- yo kāme parivajjeti Sn.768=Nett 69.-- nikkhamma gharā panujja kāme Sn.359; -- ye ca kāme pariññāya caranti akutobhayā te ve pāragatā loke ye pattā āsavakkhayaṁ A.III,69.-- Kāmānaṁ pariññaṁ paññāpeti Gotamo M.I,84; cp.A.V,64; kāme pajahati:S.I,12=31; Sn.704; kāmānaṁ vippahāna S.I,47; -- ye kāme hitvā agihā caranti Sn.464; -- kāmā nirujjhanti (through jhāna) A.IV,410; kāme panudati Dh.383=S.I,15 (context broken),cp.kāmasukhaṁ analaṁkaritvā Sn.59; -- kāmesu anapekkhin Sn.166=Ś I.16 (abbrev.); S.II,281; Sn.857; -- cp.rāgaṁ vinayetha ...Sn.361.vivicc’eva kāmehi,aloof from sensuous joys is the prescription for all Jhāna-exercise.

Applications of these expressions:--kāmesu palāḷita A.III,5; kāmesu mucchita S.I,74; kāmālaye asatta S.I,33; kāmesu kathaṁ nameyya S.I,117; kāmesu anikīḷitāvin S.I,9 (cp.kela); kittassa munino carato kāmesu anapekhino oghatiṇṇassa pihayanti kāmesu gathitā pajā Sn.823 (gadhitā Nd1); -- kāmesu asaññata Sn.243; -- yo na lippati kāmesu tam ahaṁ brūmi brāhmaṇaṁ Dh.401; -- Muni santivādo agiddho kāme ca loke ca anûpalitto Sn.845; kāmesu giddha D.III,107; Sn.774; kāmesu gedhaṁ āpajjati S.I,73; -- na so rajjati kāmesu Sn.161; -- kāmānaṁ vasam upāgamum Sn.315 (=kāmānaṁ āsattataṁ pāpuniṁsu SnA 325); kāme parivajjeti Sn.768,kāme anugijjhati Sn.769.

Character of Kāmā.The pleasures of the senses are evanescent,transient (sabbe kāmā aniccā,etc.A.II,177),and of no real taste (appāsādā); they do not give permanent satisfaction; the happiness which they yield is only a deception,or a dream,from which the dreamer awakens with sorrow and regret.Therefore the Buddha says “Even though the pleasure is great,the regret is greater:ādīnavo ettha bhīyyo” (see k-sukha).Thus kāmā as kālikā (needing time) S.I,9,117; aniccā (transitory) S.I,22; kāmā citrā madhurā “pleasures are manifold and sweet” (i.e.tasty) Sn.50; but also appassādā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā:quot.M.I,91; see Nd2 71.Another passage with var.descriptions and comparisons of kāma,beginning with app’assādā dukkhā kāmā is found at J.IV,118.--atittaṁ yeva kāmesu antako kurute vasaṁ Dh.48; -- na kahāpaṇavassena titti kāmesu vijjati appasādā dukkhā kāmā iti viññāya paṇḍito “not for showers of coins is satisfaction to be found in pleasures-of no taste and full of misery are pleasures:thus say the wise and they understand” Dh.186; cp.M.I,130; Vin.II,25 (cp.Divy 224).-- Kāmato jāyatī soko kāmato jāyatī bhayaṁ kāmato vippamuttassa n’atthi soko kuto bhayan ti “of pleasure is born sorrow,of pleasure is born fear” Dh.215.‹-› Kāmānam adhivacanāni,attributes of kāma are:bhaya,dukkha,roga,gaṇḍa,salla,saṅga,paṅka,gabbha A.IV,289; Nd2 p.62 on Sn.51; same,except salla & gabbha:A.III,310.The misery of such pleasures is painted in vivid colours in the Buddha’s discourse on pains of pleasures M.I,85 and parallel passages (see e.g.Nd2 199),how kāma is the cause of egoism,avarice,quarrels between kings,nations,families,how it leads to warfare,murder,lasciviousness,torture and madness.Kāmānaṁ ādīnavo (the danger of passions) M.I,85 sq.=Nd2 199,quot.SnA 114 (on Sn.61); as one of the five anupubbikathās:K° ādīnavaṁ okāraṁ saṁkilesaṁ A.IV,186,209,439; -- they are the leaders in the army of Māra:kāmā te paṭhamā senā Sn.436; -- yo evamvādī ...n’atthi kāmesu doso ti so kāmesu pātavyataṁ āpajjati A.I,266=M.I,305 sq.

Similes.--In the foll.passage (following on appassādā bahudukkhā,etc.) the pleasures of the senses are likened to:(1) aṭṭhi-kaṅkhala,a chain of bones; ‹-› (2) maṁsapesi,a piece of (decaying) flesh; -- (3) tiṇ’ukkā,a torch of grass; (4) aṅgāra-kāsu,a pit of glowing cinders; -- (5) supina,a dream; (6) yācita,beggings; -- (7) rukkha-phala,the fruit of a tree; -- (8) asisūna,a slaughter-house; -- (9) satti-sūla,a sharp stake; -- (10) sappa-sira,a snake’s head,i.e.the bite of a snake at Vin.II,25; M.I,130; A.III,97 (where aṭṭhisaṅkhala); Nd2 71 (leaving out No.10).Out of this list are taken single quotations of No.4 at D.III,283; A.IV,224=V.175; No.5 at DhA.III,240; No.8 at M.I,144; No.9 at S.I,128=Th.2,58 & 141 (with khandhānaṁ for khandhāsaṁ); No.10 as āsīvisa (poisonous fangs of a snake) yesu mucchitā bālā Th.2,451,and several at many other places of the Canon.

Cases used adverbially:--kāmaṁ Acc.as adv.(a) yathā kāmaṁ according to inclination,at will,as much as one chooses S.I,227; J.I,203; PvA.63,113,176; yena kāmaṁ wherever he likes,just as he pleases A.IV,194; Vv I.11 (=icchānurūpaṁ VvA.11) -- (b) willingly,gladly,let it be that,usually with imper.S.I,222; J.I,233; III,147; IV,273; VvA.95; kāmaṁ taco nahāru ca aṭṭhi ca avasissatu (avasussatu in J) sarīre upasussatu maṁsa-lohitaṁ “willingly shall skin,sinews and bone remain,whilst flesh and blood shall wither in the body” M.I,481; A.I,50; S.II,28; J.I,71,110; --kāmasā (Instr.) in same sense J.IV,320; VI,181; --kāmena (Instr.) do.J.V,222,226; --kāmā for the love of,longing after (often with hi) J.III,466; IV,285,365; V,294; VI,563,589; cp.Mhv III,18,467.--akāmā unwillingly D.I,94; J.VI,506; involuntarily J.V,237.

°kāma (adj.) desiring,striving after,fond of,pursuing,in kāma-kāma pleasure-loving Sn.239 (kāme kāmayanto SnA 284); Dh.83 (cp.on this passage Morris,J.P.T.S.1893,39--41); same expln as prec.at DhA.II,156; Th.2,506.-- atthakāma well-wishing,desirous of good,benevolent J.I,241; V,504 (anukampakā +); sic lege for attakāmarūpā,M.I,205,III,155,cf.S i.44 with ib.75; A.II,21; Pv IV.351; VvA.11 (in quotation); PvA.25,112; mānakāma proud S.I,4; lābhakāma fond of taking; grasping,selfish A.II,240; dūsetu° desiring to molest Vin.IV,212; dhamma° Sn.92; pasaṁsa° Sn.825.So frequently in comb.w.inf.,meaning,willing to,wishing to,going to,desirous of:jīvitu°,amaritu°,dātu°,daṭṭhu°,dassana°,kātu°,pattu°,netu°,gantu°,bhojetu°,etc.--sakāma (-adj.) willing J.V,295.--akāma 1.not desiring,i.e.unwilling:M.II,181; mayhaṁ akāmāya against my wish (=mama anicchantiyā) Pv.II,107,J.V,121,183,etc.2.without desire,desireless,passionless Sn.445.--nikkāma same Sn.1131.

--agga (nt.) the greatest pleasure,intense enjoyment M.II,43; Vv 163 (=VvA.79,attributed to the Paranimmita-vasavattino-devā); --aggi the fire of passion J.V,487; --ajjhosāna (nt.) attachment to lust and desire,No.10 in kāmacchanda series (see above); --âdhikaraṇa having its cause in desire M.I,85; S.I,74; --âdhimutta,bent upon the enjoyment of sensual pleasures A.III,168; J.VI,159; --ânusārin pursuing worldly pleasures J.II,117; --andha blinded by passion Ud.76=Th.1,297;-- âbhibhū overcoming passions,Ep.of the Buddha D.II,274; --âbhimukha bent upon lust,voluptuous PvA.3; --âvacara “having its province in kāma,” belonging to the realm of sensuous pleasures.This term applies to the eleven grades of beings who are still under the influence of sensual desires and pleasures,as well as to all thoughts and conditions arising in this sphere of sensuous experience D.I,34 (of the soul,expld DA.120:cha k°-devapariyāpanna); J.I,47; Dhs.1,431; Ps.1,84,85,101; Vbh.324; Vism.88,372,452 (rūpa°,arūpa°,lokuttara),493 (of indriyas),574; PvA.138.--kamma an action causing rebirth in the six kāma-worlds Dhs.414,418,431; --devatā PvA.138 (+brahmādevatā) and --devā the gods of the pleasure-heavens J.I,47; V,5; VI,99; Vism.392; or of the kāmâvacara-devaloka J.VI,586,--bhūmi and --loka the plane or world of kāma Ps.I,83; J.VI,99; see also avacara; --âvacaraka belonging to the realm of kāma J.VI,99; Sdhp.254 (°ika); --assāda the relish of sensual pleasures PvA.262; DA.I,89,311; --ātura affected by passion,love-sick J.III,170; --ārāma pleasure-loving A.IV,438 (gihī k-bhogī,°ratā,°sammuditā); --ālaya,the abode of sensual pleasure (i.e.kāma-loka) S.I,33=Sn.177; Sn.306; --āvaṭṭa the whirlpool of sensuality J.II,330; --āsava the intoxication of passion,sensuality,lusts; def.as kāmesu kāma-chando,etc.(see above k-chando) Vbh.364,374; Dhs.1097; as the first of four impurities,viz.k°,bhava°,diṭṭhi°,avijjā° at Vin.III,5 (the detachment from which constitutes Arahantship); Vbh.373; Dhs.1096,1448; as three (prec.without diṭṭhi°) at It.49; Vbh.364; cp.D.I,84; II,81; III,216; M.I,7; --itthi a pleasure-woman,a concubine Vin.I,36; J.I,83; V,490; VI,220; --upabhoga the enjoyment of pleasures VvA.79; --upādāna clinging to sensuality,arising from taṇhā,as k° diṭṭhi° sīlabbata°,attavāda° D.III,230; M.I,51; Vbh.136,375; Vism.569; --ûpapatti existence or rebirth in the sensuous universe.These are three:(1) Paccupaṭṭhita-kāmā (including mankind,four lowest devalokas,Asuras,Petas and animals),(2) Nimmāna-ratino devā,(3) Paranimmita-vasavattino devā D.III,218; It.94.--ûpasaṁhita endowed with pleasantness:in formula rūpā (saddā,etc.) iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā k° rajaniyā “forms (sounds,etc.=any object of sense),desirable,lovely,agreeable,pleasant,endowed with pleasantness,prompting desires” D.I,245=M.I,85; 504; D.II,265; M.III,267; VvA.127.--esanā the craving for pleasure.There are three esanās:kāma°,bhava°,brahmacariya° D.III,216 270; A.II,42; Vbh.366; It.48; S.V,54; --ogha the flood of sensual desires A.III,69; D.III,230,276; Vbh.375; Vism.141; DhsA.166; Nd2 178 (viz.kām°,bhav°,diṭṭh°,avijj°).--kaṇṭaka the sting of lust Ud.27; --kara the fulfilment of one’s desires J.V,370 (=kāmakiriyā) --karaṇīya in yathā° pāpimato the puppet of the wicked (lit.one with whom one can do as one likes) M.I,173; It.56; --kalala the mud of passions J.III,293; --kāra the fulfilment of desires Sn.351=Th.1,1271; --kārin acting according to one’s own inclination Th.1.971; or acting willingly DA.I,71; --koṭṭhāsa a constituent of sensual pleasure (=kāmaguṇa) J.III,382; V,149; DA.I,121; PvA.205; --kopa the fury of passion Th.1,671; --gavesin,pleasure-seeking Dh.99=Th.1,992.--gijjha J.I,210 and --giddha greedy for pleasure,craving for love J.III,432; V,256; VI,245; --giddhimā,same J.VI,525.--giddhin f.°inī same Mhvs VI,3.--guṇā (pl.) always as pañca:the five strands of sensual pleasures,viz.,the pleasures which are to be enjoyed by means of the five senses; collectively all sensual pleasures.Def.as cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā,etc.A.III,411; D.I,245; II,271; III,131,234; Nd2 s.v.; Ps.I,129; as manāpiyehi rūpâdīhi pañcahi kāma-koṭṭhāsehi bandhanehi vā DA.I,121,where it is also divided into two groups:mānusakā and dibbā.As constituents of kāmarāga at Nett 28; as vana (desire) Nett 81.-- In the popular view they are also to be enjoyed in “heaven”:saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissāmi tattha dibbehi pañcahi k-guṇehi samappito samaṅgibhūto paricāressāmī ti Vin.III,72; mentioned as pleasures in Nandana S.I,5; M.I,505; A.III,40,IV.118; in various other connections S.IV,202; Vv 307; Pv III,71 (°ehi sobhasi; expl.PvA.205 by kāma-koṭṭhāsehi); PvA.58 (paricārenti); cp.also kāma-kāmin.As the highest joys of this earth they are the share of men of good fortune,like kings,etc.(mānusakā k° guṇā) S.V,409; A.V,272,but the same passage with “dibbehi pañcahi k°-guṇehi samappita ...” also refers to earthly pleasures,e.g.S.I,79,80 (of kings); S.V,342 (of a Cakkavatti); A.II,125; IV,55,239; V,203; of the soul D.I,36; Vbh.379; other passages simply quoting k-g° as worldly pleasures are e.g.S.I,16=Sn.171; S.I,92; IV,196.326; A.III,69 (itthirūpasmiṁ); D.I,60,104; Sdhp.261.In the estimation of the early Buddhists,however,this bundle of pleasures is to be banned from the thought of every earnest striver after perfection:their critique of the kāmaguṇā begins with “pañc’ime bhikkhave kāmaguṇā ...” and is found at various places,e.g.in full at M.I,85=Nd2 s.v.; M.I,454; II,42; III,114; quoted at M.I,92; A.III,411; IV,415,430,449,458.Other expressions voicing the same view are:gedho pañcannaṁ k°-guṇānaṁ adhivacanaṁ A.III,312 sq.; asisūnā ...adhivac° M.I,144; nivāpo ...adhivac° M.I.155; sāvaṭṭo ...adhivac° It.114.In connection w.rata & giddha PvA.3; pahīna M.III,295; gathita & mucchita M.I,173; mā te kāmaguṇe bhamassu cittaṁ “Let not thy heart roam in the fivefold pleasures” Dh.371; cittassa vossaggo Vbh.370; asantuṭṭha Vbh.350.See also Sn.50,51,171,284,337.--guṇika consisting of fivefold desire,appl.to rāga S.II,99; J.IV,220; Dhs.A.371; --gedha a craving for pleasure S.I,100; ThA.225; --cāgin he who has abandoned lusts Sn.719.--citta impure thought J.II,214; --chanda excitement of sensual pleasure,grouped as the first of the series of five obstacles (pañca nīvaraṇāni) D.I,156,246; III,234,278; A.I,231; IV,457; A.I,134=Sn.1106; S.I,99; V,64; Bdhd 72,96,130; Nd2 200,420A.Also as the first in the series of ten fetters (saṁyojanāni) which are given above (p.31) as synonyms of kāma.Enumerated under 1--10 at Nd2 200 as eight in order:1,2,3,4,5,7,9,10 (omitting pipāsā and gedha) Vbh.364; Dhs.1114,1153; Nd2 ad chandarāga and bhavachanda; in order:2,3,5,9,6,7,10,4 at A.II,10; -- as nine (like above,omitting gedha) at Vbh.374; Dhs.1097; -- as five in order:1,5,9,6,7,(cp.above passage A.II,10) at M.I,241; -- as four in order:1,5,9,7 at S.IV,188; -- as six nīvaraṇas (5 + avijjā) at Dhs.1170,1486.See also D.I,246; III,234,269; Ps.I,103,108; II,22,26,44,169; Vism.141; Sdhp.459; --jāla the net of desires Th.1,355; --taṇhā thirst after sensual pleasures; the first of the three taṇhās,viz.kāma°,bhava°,vibhava° D.III,216,275; It.50; Vbh.365 (where defined as kāmadhātupaṭisaṁyutto rāgo); Dhs.1059,1136 (cp.taṇhā:jappāpassage); as the three taṇhā,viz.ponobbhavikā,nandirāga-sahagatā,tatratatr’âbhinandinī at Vin.I,10= Vbh.101; as k-taṇhāhi khajjamāno k-pariḷāhena pariḍayhamāno M.I,504.See also D.II,308; S.I,131; A.II,11; Th.2,140; J.II,311; V,451; Miln.318.--da granting desires,bestowing objects of pleasure and delight; Ep.of Yakkhas and of Vessantara (cp.the good fairy) J.VI,498,525; Mhvs 19,9; as sabba° Pv.II,138--dada=prec.Pv.II,918; PvA.112; J.VI,508; of a stone Miln.243,252; of Nibbāna Miln.321; Kh VIII,10:esa devamanussānaṁ sabbakāmadado nidhi “this is the treasure which gives all pleasures to gods and men”; --dukkha the pain of sensual pleasures J.IV,118; --duha granting wishes,like a cow giving milk J.V,33; VI,214; f.°duhā the cow of plenty J.IV,20; --dhātu “element of desire.” i.e.1.the world of desire,that sphere of existence in which beings are still in the bonds of sensuality,extending from the Avīci-niraya to the heaven of the Paranimmita-vasavatti-devas S.II,151; Th.1,181; also 2.sensual pleasures,desires,of which there are six dhātus,viz.kāma°,vyāpāda,vihiṁsā°,nekkhamma°,avyāpāda°,avihiṁsā°,Vbh.86; Nett 97; D.III,215= Vbh.363 (as the first three=akusaladhātus); Vbh.404.See also D.III,275; Th.1,378; J.V,454; Vism.486 (cp.Vbh.86).--nandī sensual delight (cp.°chanda) A.II,11; Dhs.1114,etc.--nidānaṁ Acc.adv.as the consequence of passion,through passion,M.I,85,etc.(in kāmaguṇā passage); --nissaraṇa deliverance from passion,the extinction of passion It.61 (as three nissaraṇīyā dhātuyo),cp.A.III,245; --nissita depending on craving Miln.11; --nīta led by desire J.II,214,215; --paṅka the mire of lusts Sn.945; Th.2,354; J.V,186,256; VI,230,505; Mhbv 3; --paṭisandhi-sukhin finding happiness in the association with desire M.III,230; --pariḷāha the flame or the fever of passion M.I,242,508; S.IV,188; A.I,68 (pariḍayhati,khajjati,etc.); A.II,11; Vin.III,20; Nd2 374 (comd with °palibodha); DhA.II,2; see also kāmacchanda passage.--pāla the guardian of wishes,i.e.benefactor J.V,221; --pipāsā thirst for sensuality M.I,242; A.II,11,and under k°-chanda; --bandha Ud.93,and --bandhana the bonds of desire J.VI,28,also in the sense of k°-guṇā,q.v.; --bhava a state of existence dominated by pleasures.It is the second kind of existence,the first being caused by kamma Vbh.137.It rests on the effect of kamma,which is manifested in the kāma-dhātu A.I,223.It is the first form of the 3 bhavas,viz.kāma°,rūpa°,arūpa° Vin.I,36; D.III,216; A.IV,402; Vism.572.Emancipation from this existence is the first condition to the attainment of Arahantship:kāmabhave asatta akiñcana Sn.176,1059,1091 (expl.SnA 215:tividhe bhave alaggana); Bdhd 61.°parikkhīṇa one who has overcome the desire-existence Dh.415=Sn.639.--bhoga enjoyment of sensual pleasures,gratification of desires S.I,74 (sāratta --°esu giddhā kāmesu mucchitā); Th.2,464; It.94 (-°esu paṇḍito who discriminates in worldly pleasures); J.II,65; --bhogin enjoying the pleasures of the senses Vin.I,203,287; II,136,149; D.III,124,125; Miln.243,350,as Ep.of the kāmûpapatti-beings It.94; as ten kinds A.V,177; as bringing evil,being blameworthy S.I,78; cp.A.IV,281,438; S.IV,333 sq.; A.III,351; Th.2,486; J.III,154.ye keci kāmesu asaññatā janā avītarāgā idha k-bhogino (etc.) A.II,6,cp.II.17.kāmabhogī kām’ārāmo kāmarato kāma-sammudita A.IV,439; --°seyyā sleeping at ease,way of lying down,the second of the four ways of sleeping (kāmabhogīseyyā vāmena passena) A.II,244; --bhojin=°bhogin Ud.65; --magga the path of sensuous pleasures J.V,67; --matta intoxicated with sensuous pleasures J.VI,231; --mucchā sensual stupor or languor S.IV,189; A.II,11; Dhs.1114,etc.(see kāmacchanda); --yoga application to sensuous enjoyment,one of the four yogas,viz.kāma°,bhava°,diṭṭhi°,avijjā° (cp.āsavā) A.II,10; only the first two at It.95; cp.D.III,230,276; S.V,59; DhsA.166; --rata delighting in pleasures J.V,255; --rati amorous enjoyment (as arati) Th.2,58 and 141; J.I,211; III,396; IV,107.–n’atthi nissaraṇaṁ loke kiṁ vivekena kāhasi bhuñjassu kratiyo mâhu pacchânutāpinī S.I,128.mā pamādam anuyuñjetha,mā kāmaratisanthavaṁ appamatto hi jhāyanto pappoti paramaṁ sukhan S.I,25=Dh.27=Th.1,884; --rasa the taste of love J.II,329; III,170; V,451; --rāga sensual passion,lust.This term embraces the kāmaguṇā & the three rāgas:Dhs.1131,1460; Nett 28; M.I,433 sq.; D.III,254,282; S.I,22= A.III,411; S.I,13,53; III,155; Th.2,68,77; PvA.6; see also k-chanda passage.Relinquishing this desire befits the Saint:Sn.139 (°ṁ virājetvā brahmalokûpago).As k-rāgavyāpāda Dhs.362; SnA 205; --rūpa a form assumed at will VvA.80,or a form which enjoys the pleasures of heaven Vbh.426; --lāpin talking as one likes D.I,91 (=DA.I,257 yadicchaka-bhāṇin); --lābha the grasping of pleasures,in °abhijappin A.III,353; --loka the world of pleasures=kāmâvacara,q.v.Sdhp.233,261; --vaṇṇin assuming any form at will,Protean J.II,255= III,409=Vv 33191; J.V,157; Vv 163; VvA.80,143,146; --vasika under the influence of passions J.II,215; --vitakka a thought concerning some sensuous pleasure,one of the three evil thoughts (kāma° vyāpāda° vihiṁsā°) D.III,215,226; M.I,114; A.I,68; J.I,63; III,18,375; IV,490; VI,29; It.82,115; Vbh.362; Miln.310; --vega the impulse of lust J.VI,268; --sagga the heaven of sensuous beings,there are six q.v.under sagga J.I,105; II,130; III,258; IV,490; VI,29,432; at all these passages only referred to,not enumd; cp.k-âvacara; --saṅkappa- bahula full of aspirations after pleasure A.III,145,259; D.III,215; --saṅga attachment to passion Ud.75; --saññā lustful idea or thought; one of the three akusalasaññās (as vitakka) D.I,182; III,215; M.II,262; S.I,126; Vbh.363; Th.1,1039; virata k° āya S.I,53=Sn.175; --saññojana the obstacle or hindrance formed by pleasures; °âtiga Ep.of Arahant,free of the fetters of lust A.III,373 (+ kāmarāgaṁ virājetvā); --sineha love of pleasures Dhs.1097 (also as °sneha M.I,241; S.IV,188; A.II,10); see k-chanda; --sukha happiness or welfare arising from (sensual) pleasure,worldly happiness,valued as mīlha°,puthujjana°,anariya°,and not worth pursuit:see kāmaguṇā,which passage closes:yaṁ ime pañca k-guṇe paṭicca uppajjati sukhaṁ somanassaṁ idaṁ vuccati k-sukhaṁ A.IV,415; S.IV,225; varying with ...somanassaṁ ayaṁ kāmānaṁ assādo M.I,85,92,etc.-- As kāma° and nekkhamma° A.I,80; as renounced by the Saint:anapekkhino k° ṁ pahāya Dh.346= S.I,77; M.III,230; Sn.59 (see Nd2 s.v.).See also S.IV,208; M.II,43; Th.2,483; Vv 617; J.II,140; III,396; V,428; kāmasukhallik’ânuyoga attachment to worldly enjoyment S.IV,330; V,421; Vin.I,10; D.III,113; Nett 110; Vism.5,32; --sutta N.of the first sutta of the Aṭṭhakavagga of Sn; --seṭṭhā (pl.) a class of devas D.II,258; --sevanā pursuit of,indulgence in,sensuous pleasure J.II,180; III,464; --sevin adj.to prec.J.IV,118; --hetu having craving as a cause:in ādīnava-section,foll.on kāmaguṇā M.I,86,etc.,of wealth S.I,74; --hetuka caused by passion Th.2,355=ThA.243; J.V,220,225.(Page 203)
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
KĀMA:[m] sự thỏa thích,tình dục,sự thưởng thức,vật vui thích trần thế --giddha tham muốn thỏa thích theo tình dục --guṇa [m] tình dục,ngũ trần --gedha [m] sự quyến luyến theo dục trần --cchanda [m] sự thỏa thích theo dục trần --taṇhā [f] sự khao khát tình dục ngũ trần --da,--dada [a] cho cái gì mình thích --dhātu [f] cảnh giới dục trần --paṇka [m] sự sa lầy trong tình dục --pariḷāha [m] sự nóng sốt của tình dục--bhava [m] cảnh dục giới --bhogī [a] hưởng sự vui thích của dục trần--mucchā [f] sự mê mẩn trong tình dục--rati [f] sự vui thích tình dục--rāga [m] sự mê sa tình dục --loka [m] cảnh dục giới --vitakka [m] sự suy nghĩ về tình dục --saṅkappa [m] tư tưởng về tình dục --saññojana [nt] dây cột trói tình dục --sukha [nt] sự an vui trong tình dục --sevanā [f] sự dâm dục
Pali Viet Abhidhamma Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ Vô Tỷ Pháp của ngài Tịnh Sự, được chép từ phần ghi chú thuật ngữ trong các bản dịch của ngài.
kāma:muốn,thích,dục lạc,cõi dục,dục,dục lạc,vật dục,sự muốn,sự mong mỏi
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
kāma:ကာမ (ပု၊န)
[ကမု+ဏ။ ကာေမတီတိ ကာေမာ...ကာမိယတီတိ ကာေမာ။ အဘိ၊ ႒၊ ၁။ ၁ဝ၄။]
(၁) အလိုရွိအပ္ေသာ တရား (အာ႐ုံ၊ အရာဝတၳဳ၊ ဝတၳဳကာမ၊ ကာမဂုဏ္၊ ကာမဘုံ)။ ကာမဓာတု-လည္းၾကည့္။ (၂) အလိုရွိတတ္-လိုခ်င္တတ္-ေသာတရား (ကိေလသကာမ=ေလာဘ၊ ဆႏၵ)။ (၃) (က) အလို၊ အလို၏ျပည့္စုံျခင္း၊ ကာမ ဘုန္းေတာ္။ (ခ) အစီးအပြါးကို လိုလားျခင္း (ဟိတစၧႏၵ)။ အတၱကာမ႐ူပ-,ၾကည့္။ (၄) မာရ္နတ္၊ ကာမနတ္။ (၅) (က) ေမထုန္။ (ခ) ကာမကို သုံးေဆာင္ျခင္း။ (န) (၆) အလိုအတိုင္း၊ အလိုက်။ (တိ) (၇) အလိုရွိတတ္ေသာ၊ သူ။ အတၱကာမ-(က)-ၾကည့္။ (၈) ကာမမည္ေသာ (ျပာသာဒ္)။ ကာမကာမဝဏၰကာမသုဒၶိနာမ-ၾကည့္။ မူရင္းၾကည့္ပါ။
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
kāma:ကာမ (ပု)
[ကာမ+ဘဝ။ ကာမဘေဝါ ကာ ေမာ၊ ဥတၱရပဒေလာေပန။ ဒီ၊ ဋီ၊ ၃။ ၁၈၈။ အႏုဋီ၊ ၃။ ၄ဝ။]
ကာမဘုံ။
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
kāma:ကာမ (ပ) (√ကမ္+ဏ)
ခ်စ္ႀကိဳက္ျခင္း။ လိုခ်င္ေတာင့္တျခင္း။ ဝတၳဳကာမ ကိေလသာကာမ။
ဝိဝိေစၥဝ ကာေမဟိ၊ ကိေလသာကာမတို႔မွ ဆိတ္၍သာလွ်င္။ ကာမာနံ အာဒီနဝံ၊ ကာမဂုဏ္တို႔၏အျပစ္ကို။

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