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|Gotama：m．[Sk．BSk．Gautama] 瞿曇，喬答摩 [釋迦族的姓，多指釋尊].|
|Gotama：m．[Sk．BSk．Gautama] 瞿曇，喬答摩 [釈迦族の姓，釈尊を指すこと多し].|
|Gotama，（go牛+utama最好的），【形】【名】瞿曇的，瞿曇氏族的；瞿曇（經中有時指佛陀）。Gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi （我歸依瞿曇）。|
|Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary|
[gotama+ṇa．gotamassa putto．rū.365．gotamavaṃsassa kapilassa munino sissatāya sakyā gotamā，bhagavā pana gotamavaṃse uppannattā gotamassa munino apaccaṃ gotamo．，ṭī.4.]
[ေဂါတမ+ဏ။ ေဂါတမႆ ပုေတၱာ။ ႐ူ။၃၆၅။ ေဂါတမဝံသႆ ကပိလႆ မုနိေနာ သိႆတာယ သက်ာ ေဂါတမာ၊ ဘဂဝါ ပန ေဂါတမဝံေသ ဥပၸႏၷတၱာ ေဂါတမႆ မုနိေနာ အပစၥံ ေဂါတေမာ။ ဓာန္၊ဋီ။၄။]
|Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary|
|Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera|
|gotama：[adj.] belonging to the Gotama clan.|
|Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names by G P Malalasekera|
|Gotama：The last of the twenty-five Buddhas.
No comprehensive account of Gotama Buddha is as yet possible．The details given in this article are those generally accepted by orthodox Theravādins and contained in their books，chiefly the Pāli Commentaries，more especially the Nidānakathā of the Jātaka and the Buddhavamsa Commentary．
Biographical details are also found in the Mahā Vagga and the Culla Vagga of the Vinaya Pitaka，the Buddhavamsa and in various scattered passages of the Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka．References to these are given where considered useful．Controversy exists with regard to many of the matters mentioned； for discussion of the varying views regarding these，reference should be made to the works of Oldenberg，Rhys Davids （both Professor and Mrs．Rhys Davids），Kern，E．J．Thomas and other scholars．Further particulars of persons and places mentioned can be obtained by reference to the articles under the respective names.
He was a Sākiyan （the Sākiyans were evidently subjects of the Kosala king； the Buddha calls himself a Kosalan，M.ii.124），son of Suddhodana （all Pāli Commentaries and Sanskrit works represent the Buddha as the son of a king，descendant of a long line of famous ancestors），chief ruler of Kapilavatthu，and of Mahā Māyā，Suddhodana’s chief consort，and he belonged to the Gotama-gotta．Before his conception he was in the Tusita heaven，waiting for the due time for his birth in his last existence．Then，having made the ”five investigations” （pañcavilolcanāni） （see Buddha），he took leave of his companions and descended to earth．（According to the Lalitavistara he appointed the Bodhisatta Maitreya as king of Tusita in his place）．Many wondrous and marvellous events attended his conception and birth．（Given in the Acchariyabbhutadhamma Sutta，M.iii.118f； also D.ii.12f．A more detailed account is found in J.i.47ff； both the Lai．and the Mtu.ii.14ff differ as to the details given here of the conception and the birth）．
The conception takes place on the full-moon day of āsālha，with the moon in Uttarāsālha，and Maya has no relations with her husband．She has a marvellous dream in which the Bodhisatta，as a white elephant，enters her womb through her side．When the dream is mentioned to the brahmins，they foretell the birth of a son who will be either a universal monarch or a Buddha．An earthquake takes place and thirty-two signs appear，presaging the birth of a great being．The first of these signs is a boundless，great light，flooding every corner of the ten thousand worlds； everyone beholds its glory，even the fires in all hells being extinguished．Ten months after the conception，in the month of Visākha，Māyā wishes to visit her parents in Devadaha．On the way thither from Kapilavatthu she passes the beautiful Lumbini grove，in which she desires to wander； she goes to a great sāla-tree and seizes a branch in her hand； labour pains start immediately，and，when the courtiers retire，having drawn a curtain round her，even while standing，she is delivered of the child．It is the day of the full moon of Visākha； four Mahābrahmas receive the babe in a golden net，and streams of water descend from the sky to wash him．The boy stands on the earth，takes seven steps north-wards and utters his lion-roar，”I am the chief in the world.” On the same day seven other beings were born：the Bodhi-tree，Rāhula’s mother （Rāhulamātā，his future wife），the four Treasure-Troves （described at DA.i.284），his elephant，his horse Kanthaka，his charioteer Channa，and Kāludāyī．The babe is escorted back to Kapilavatthu on the day of his birth and his mother dies seven days later.
The isi Asita （or Kāladevala），meditating in the Himālaya，learns from the Tāvatimsa gods of the birth of the Buddha，visits Suddhodana the same day and sees the boy，whom they both worship．Asita weeps for sorrow that he will not live to see the boy’s Buddhahood，but he instructs his nephew Nālaka （v.l．Naradatta） to prepare himself for that great day．On the fifth day after the birth is the ceremony of name-giving．One hundred and eight brahmins are invited to the festival at the palace； eight of them - Rāma，Dhaja，Lakkhana，Manti，Kondañña，Bhoja，Suyāma and Sudatta - are interpreters of bodily marks，and all except Kondañña prophesy two possibilities for the boy； but Kondañña，the youngest，says，quite decisively，that he will be a Buddha．The name given to the boy at this ceremony is not actually mentioned，but from other passages it is inferred that it was Siddhattha （q.v.）.
Among other incidents recounted of the Buddha’s boyhood is that of his attaining the first jhāna under a jambu-tree．One day he is taken to the state ploughing of the king where Suddhodana himself，with his golden plough，ploughs with the farmers．The nurses，attracted by the festivities，leave the child under a jambu-tree．They return to find him seated，cross-legged，in a trance，the shadow of the tree remaining still，in order to protect him．The king is informed and，for the second time，does reverence to his son．J.i.57f； MA.i.466f； the incident is alluded to in the Mahā Saccaka Sutta （M.i.246）； the corresponding incident recounted in Mtu．（ii.45f.） takes place in a park，and the，details differ completely．The Lai．has two versions，one in prose and one in verse and both resemble the Mtu.； but in these the Buddha is represented as being much older．The Divy （391） and the Tibetan versions （e.g.，Rockhill，p.22） put the incident very much later in the Buddha’s life．Other incidents are given in Lai．and Mtu.
The Bodhisatta is reported to have lived in the household for twenty-nine years a life of great luxury and excessive ease，surrounded by all imaginable comforts．He owns three palaces - Ramma，Suramma and Subha - for the three seasons．Mention is made of his luxurious life in A.i.145； also in M.i.504； further details are given in AA.i.378f.； J.i.58．See also Mtu.ii.115； cf．Vin.i.15； D.ii.21.
When the Bodhisatta is sixteen years old，Suddhodana sends messengers to the Sākyans asking that his son be allowed to seek a wife from among their daughters； but the Sākyans are reluctant to send them，for，they say，though the young man is hand-some，he knows no art； how，then，can he support a wife? When this is reported to the prince，he summons an assembly of the Sākyans and performs various feats，chief of these being twelve feats with a bow which needs the strength of one thousand men．（The feats with the bow are described in the Sarabhanga Jātaka，J.v.129f ）．The Sākyans are so impressed that each sends him a daughter，the total number so sent being forty thousand．The Bodhisatta appoints as his chief wife the daughter of Suppabuddha，who，later，comes to be called Rāhulamātā．She is known under various names：Bhaddakaccā （or Kaccānā），Yasodharā．Bimbā，Bimbasundarī and Gopā．For a discussion see Rāhulamātā.
According to the generally accepted account，Gotama is twenty-nine when the incidents occur which lead to final renunciation．Following the prophecy of the eight brahmins，his father had taken every precaution that his son should see no sign of old age，sickness or death．But the gods decide that the time is come for the Enlightenment，and instil into Gotama’s heart a desire to go into the park．On the way，the gods put before him a man showing signs of extreme age，and the Bodhisatta returns，filled with desire for renunciation．The king，learning this，surrounds him with even greater attractions，but on two other days Gotama goes to the park and the gods put before him a sick man and a corpse．（According to some accounts，e.g．that of the Dīghabhānakas，the four omens were all seen on the same day，J.i.59）
On the full-moon day of āsālha，the day appointed for the Great Renunciation，Gotama sees a monk and hears from his charioteer praise of the ascetic life．Feeling very happy，he goes to the park to enjoy himself．Sakka sends Vissakamma himself to bathe and adorn him，and as Gotama returns to the city in all his majesty，he receives news of the birth of his son．Foreseeing in this news a bond，he decides to call the babe Rāhula （q.v.）．Kisā Gotamī （q.v.） sees Gotama on the way to the palace and，filled with longing for him，sings to him a song containing the word nibbuta．The significance of the word （=extinguished，at peace） thrills him，and he sends to Kisā his priceless gold necklace which she，however，accepts as a token of love．Gotama enters the palace and sleeps．He wakes in the middle of the night to find his female musicians sleeping in attitudes which fill him with disgust and with loathing for the worldly life，and he decides to leave it．（In some versions the Renunciation takes place seven days after the birth of Rāhula，J.i.62）．He orders Channa to saddle Kanthaka，and enters his wife’s room for a last look at her and their son.
He leaves the city on his horse Kanthaka，with Channa clinging to its tail．The devas muffle the sound of the horse’s hoofs and of his neighing and open the city gates for Gotama to pass．Māra appears before Gotama and seeks to stay him with a promise that he shall be universal monarch within seven days．On his offer being refused，Māra threatens to shadow him always．Outside the city，at the spot where later was erected the Kanthakanivattana-cetiya，Gotama turns his horse round to take a last look at Kapilavatthu．It is said that the earth actually turned，to make it easy for him to do so．Then，accompanied by the gods，he rides thirty leagues through three kingdoms - those of the Sākyans，the Koliyans and the Mallas - and his horse crosses the river Anomā in one leap．On the other side，he gives all his ornaments to Channa，and with his sword cuts off hair and beard，throwing them up into the air，where Sakka takes them and enshrines them in the Cūlāmani-cetiya in Tāvatimsa．The Brahmā Ghatikāra offers Gotama the eight requisites of a monk，which he accepts and adopts．He then sends Channa and Kanthaka back to his father，but Kanthaka，broken-hearted，dies on the spot and is reborn as Kanthaka-devaputta．
The account given here is taken mainly from the Nidānakathā （J.i.59ff） and evidently embodies later tradition； cp．D.ii.21ff．From passages found in the Pitakas （e.g.，A.i.145； M.i.163，240； M.ii.212f.） it would appear that the events leading up to the Renunciation were not so dramatic as given here，the process being more gradual．I do not，however，agree with Thomas （op．cit.，58） that，according to these accounts，the Bodhisatta left the world when ”quite a boy.” I think the word dahara is used merely to indicate ”the prime of youth，” and not necessarily ”boyhood.” The description of the Renunciation in the Lal．is very much more elaborate and adds numerous incidents，no account of which is found in the Pāli.
From Anomā the Bodhisatta goes to the mango-grove of Anupiya，and after spending seven days there walks to Rājagaha （a distance of thirty leagues） in one day，and there starts his alms rounds．Bimbisāra’s men，noticing him，report the matter to the king，who sends messengers to enquire who this ascetic is．The men follow Gotama to the foot of the Pandavapabbata，where he eats his meal，and they then go and report to the king．Bimbisāra visits Gotama，and，pleased with his hearing，offers him the sovereignty．On learning the nature of Gotama’s quest，he wins from him a promise to visit Rājagaha first after the Enlightenment.
This incident is also mentioned in the Pabbajjā Sutta （SN.vv.405-24），but there it is the king who first sees Gotama．It is significant that，when asked his identity，Gotama does not say he is a king’s son．The Pali version of tile sutta contains nothing of Gotama’s promise to visit Rājagaha，but the Mtu．version （ii.198-200），which places the visit later，has two verses，one of which contains the request and the other the acceptance； and the SNA．（ii.385f.），too，mentions the promise and tells that Bimbisāra was informed of the prophecy concerning Gotama．There is another version of the Mtu．（ii.117-20） which says that Gotama went straight to Vaisāli after leaving home，joining Ālāra，and later visited Uddaka at Rājagaha．Here no mention is made of Bimbisāra．We are told in the Mhv．（ii.25ff） that Bimbisāra and Gotama （Siddhattha） had been playmates，Bimbisāra being the younger by five years．Bimbisāra’s father （Bhātī） and Suddhodana were friends.
Journeying from Rājagaha，Gotama in due course becomes a disciple of Ālāra-Kālāma．Having learnt and practised all that Ālāra has to teach，he finds it unsatisfying and joins Uddaka-Rāmaputta； but Uddaka’s doctrine leaves him still unconvinced and he abandons it．He then goes to Senānīgāma in Uruvelā and there，during six years，practises all manner of severe austerities，such as no man had previously undertaken．Once he falls fainting and a deva informs Suddhodana that Gotama is dead．But Suddhodana，relying on the prophecy of Kāladevala，refuses to believe the news．Gotama’s mother，now born as a devaputta in Tāvatimsa，comes to him to encourage him．At Uruvelā，the Pañcavaggiya monks are his companions，but now，having realised the folly of extreme asceticism，he decides to abandon it，and starts again to take normal food； thereupon the Pañcavaggiyas，disappointed，leave him and go to Isipatana.
J.i.66f．The Therīgāthā Commentary （p.2） mentions another teacher of Gotama，named Bhaggava，whom Gotama visited before Ālāra．Lal．（330 ） contains a very elaborate account of Gotama’s visits to teachers； he goes first to two brahmin women，Sākī and Padmā，then to Raivata and Rajaka，son of Trimandika，and finally （as far as this chapter is concerned） to Ālāra at Vaisāli．A poem containing an account of the meeting of Gotama with Bimbisāra is inserted into this account．The next chapter tells of Uddaka．An account of Gotama’s visits to teachers and of the details of his austerities is also given in the Mahā Saccaka Sutta，already referred to （M.i.240ff）； the Mahā Sīhanāda Sutta （M.i.77ff） contains a long and detailed account of his extreme asceticisms．See also M.i.163ff； ii.93f.
Gotama’s desire for normal food is satisfied by an offering brought by Sujātā to the Ajapāla banyan tree under which he is seated．She had made a vow to the tree，and her wish having been granted，she takes her slave-girl，Punnā，and goes to the tree prepared to fulfil her promise．They take Gotama to be the Tree-god，come in person to accept her offering of milk-rice； the offering is made in a golden bowl and he takes it joyfully．Five dreams he had the night before convince Gotama that he will that day become the Buddha．（The dreams are，recounted in A.iii.240 and in Mtu.ii.136f）．It is the full-moon day of Visākha； he bathes at Suppatittha in the Nerañjarā，eats the food and launches the bowl up stream，where it sinks to the abode of the Nāga king，Kāla （Mahākāla）.
Gotama spends the rest of the day in a sāla-grove and，in the evening，goes to the foot of the Bodhi-tree，accompanied by various divinities； there the grass-cutter Sotthiya gives him eight handfuls of grass； these，after investigation，Gotama spreads on the eastern side of the tree，where it becomes a seat fourteen hands long，on which he sits cross-legged，determined not to rise before attaining Enlightenment.
J.i.69．The Pitakas know nothing of Sujātā’s offering or of Sotthiya’s gift．Lal．（334-7 [267-70]） mentions ten girls in all who provide him with food during his austerities．Divy （392） mentions two，Nandā and Nandabalā.
Māra，lord of the world of passion，is determined to prevent this fulfilment，and attacks Gotama with all the strength at his command．His army extends twelve leagues to the front，right，and left of him，to the end of the Cakkavāla behind him，and nine leagues into the sky above him．Māra himself carries numerous weapons and rides the elephant Girimekhala，one hundred and fifty leagues in height．At the sight of him all the divinities gathered at the Bodhi-tree to do honour to Gotama - the great Brahmā，Sakka，the Nāga-king Mahākāla - disappear in a flash，and Gotama is left alone with the ten pāramī，long practised by him，as his sole protection．All Māra’s attempts to frighten him by means of storms and terrifying apparitions fail，and，in the end，Māra hurls at him the Cakkāvudha．It remains as a canopy poised over Gotama．The very earth bears witness to Gotama’s fitness to be the Enlightened One，and Girimekhala kneels before him．Māra is vanquished and flees headlong with his vast army．The various divinities who had fled at the approach of Māra now return to Gotama and exult in his triumph.
The whole story of the contest with Māra is，obviously，a mythological development．It is significant that in the Majjhima passages referred to earlier there is no mention of Māra，of a temptation，or even of a Bodhi-tree； but see D.ii.4 and Thomas （op．cit.，n.1）．According to the Kālingabodhi Jātaka，which，very probably，embodies an old tradition，the bodhi-tree was worshipped even in the Buddha’s life-time．The Māra legend is，however，to be found in the Canonical Padhāna Sutta of the Sutta Nipāta．This perhaps contains the first suggestion of the legend．For a discussion see Māra.
Gotama spends that night in deep meditation．In the first watch he gains remembrance of his former existences； in the middle watch he attains the divine eye （dibbacakkhu）； in the last watch he revolves in his mind the Chain of Causation （paticcasamuppāda）．As he masters this，the earth trembles and，with the dawn，comes Enlightenment．He is now the supreme Buddha，and he breaks forth into a paean of joy （udāna）.
There is great doubt as to which were these Udāna verses．The Nidānakathā and the Commentaries generally quote two verses （153，154） included in the Dhammapada collection （anekajāti samsāram，etc.）．The Vinaya （i.2） quotes three different verses （as does also DhsA.17），and says that one verse was repeated at the end of each watch，all the watches being occupied with meditation on the paticcasamuppāda．Mtu．（ii.286） gives a completely different Udāna，and in another place （ii.416） mentions a different verse as the first Udāna．The Tibetan Vinaya is，again，quite different （Rockhill，p.33）．For a discussion see Thomas，op．cit.，75ff.
For the first week the Buddha remains under the Bodhi-tree，meditating on the Paticcasamuppāda； the second week he spends at the Ajapālanigrodha，where the ”Huhuhka” Brahmin accosts him （Mara now comes again and asks the Buddha to die at once； D.ii.112） and where Mara’s daughters，Tanhā，Aratī and Rāgā，appear before the Buddha and make a last attempt to shake his resolution （J.i.78； S.i.124； Lal.490 （378））； the third week he spends under the hood of the nāga-king Mucalinda （Vin.i.3）； the fourth week is spent in meditation under the Rājāyatana tree*； at the end of this period takes place the conversion of Tapussa and Bhallika．They take refuge in the Buddha and the Dhamma，though the Buddha does not give them any instruction.
*This is the Vinaya account （Vin.i.1ff）； but the Jātaka （i.77ff，extends this period to seven weeks，the additional weeks being inserted between the first and second．The Buddha spends one week each at the Animisa-cetiya，the Ratanacankama and the Ratanaghara，and this last is where he thinks out the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Doubts now assail the Buddha as to whether he shall proclaim to the world his doctrine，so recondite，so hard to understand．The Brahma Sahampati （according to J.i.81，with the gods of the thousand worlds，including Sakka，Suyāma，Santusita，Sunimmita，Vasavatti，etc.） appears before him and assures him there are many prepared to listen to him and to profit by his teaching，and so entreats him to teach the Dhamma．The Buddha accedes to his request and，after consideration，decides to teach the Dhamma first to the Pañcavaggiyas at Isipatana．On the way to Benares he meets the ājīvaka Upaka and tells him that he （the Buddha） is Jina．On his arrival at Isipatana the Pañcavaggiyas are，at first，reluctant to acknowledge his claim to be the Tathāgata，but they let themselves be won over and，on the full-moon day of āsālha，the Buddha preaches to them the sermon which came to be known as the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta．（Vin.i.4ff； M.i.118ff； cp．D.ii.36ff．Regarding the claim of this sutta to be the Buddha’s first sermon，see Thomas，op．cit.，p.86； see also Pañcavaggiyā）．At the end of the sermon Kondañña becomes a sotāpanna and they all become monks.
This sermon is followed five days later by the Anattalakkhana Sutta，at the conclusion of which all five become arahants．The following day the Buddha meets Yasa，whom he converts．Yasa’s father，who comes seeking him，is the first to take the threefold formula of Refuge.
Yasa becomes an arahant and is ordained．The Buddha accepts a meal at his house，and Yasa’s mother and one of his former wives are the first two lay-women to become the Buddha’s disciples．Then four friends of Yasa and，afterwards，fifty more，enter the Order and become arahants．There are now sixty arahants besides the Buddha，and they are sent in different directions to preach the Dhamma．They return with many candidates for admission to the Order，and the Buddha，who up till now had ordained men with the ”ehi bhikkhu” formula，now allows the monks themselves to perform the ceremony of ordination （Vin.i.15ff； J.i.81f）.
After spending the rainy season at Benares （about this time Māra twice tries to tempt the Buddha，once after he had sent the disciples out to preach and once after the Retreat，S.i.105，111； Vin.i.21，22），the Buddha returns to Senānigāma in Uruvela，on the way converting and ordaining the thirty Bhaddavaggiyā．At Uruvela，after a long and protracted exercise of magical powers，consisting in all of three thousand five hundred miracles，the Buddha wins over the three Kassapa brothers，the Tebhātika Jatilā，with their thousand followers，and ordains them．They become arahants after listening to the ādittapariyāya Sutta preached at Gayāsīsa； with these followers he visits Rājagaha，where King Seniya Bimbisāra comes to see him at the Latthivanuyyāna．The following day the Buddha and the monks visit the palace，preceded by Sakka disguised as a youth and singing the praises of the Buddha．After the meal，the king gifts Veluvana to the Buddha and the Order．The Buddha stays for two months at Rājagaha （BuA.4），and it is during this time that Sāriputta and Moggallāna join the Order，through the instrumentality of Assaji （Vin.i.23ff）．It was probably during this year，at the beginning of the rainy season，that the Buddha visited Vesāli at the request of the Licchavis，conveyed through Mahāli．The city was suffering from pestilence and famine．The Buddha went，preached the Ratana Sutta and dispelled all dangers （DhA.iii.436ff）.
The number of converts now rapidly increases and the people of Magadha，alarmed by the prospect of childlessness，widow-hood，etc.，blame the Buddha and his monks．The Buddha，however，refutes their charges （Vin.i.42f）.
The account of the first twenty years of the Buddha’s ministry is summarised from various sources，chiefly from Thomas’s admirable account in his Life and Legend of the Buddha （pp.97ff）．The necessary references are to be found under the names mentioned.
On the full-moon day of Phagguna （February-March） the Buddha，accompanied by twenty thousand monks，sets out for Kapilavatthu at the express request of his father，conveyed through Kāludāyī．（This visit is not mentioned in the Canon； but see Thag.527-36； AA.i.107，167； J.i.87； DhA.i.96f； ThagA.i.997ff）．
By slow stages he arrives at the city，where he stays at the Nigrodhārāma，and，in order to convince his proud kinsmen of his power，performs the Yamakapātihārjya and then relates the Vessantara Jātaka．The next day，receiving no invitation to a meal，the Buddha begs in the streets of the city； this deeply grieves Suddhodana，but later，learning that it is the custom of all Buddhas，he becomes a sotāpanna and conducts the Buddha and his monks to meal at the palace．There all the women of the palace，excepting only Rāhulamātā，come and do reverence to the Buddha．Mahā Pajāpatī becomes a sotāpanna and Suddhodana a sakadāgāmi．The Buddha visits Rāhulamātā in her own apartments and utters her praises in the Candakinnara Jātaka．The following day the Buddha persuades his half-brother，Nanda，to come to the monastery，where he ordains him and，on the seventh day，he does the same with Rāhula．This is too great a blow for Suddhodana，and at his request the Buddha rules that no person shall be ordained without the consent of his parents．The next day the Buddha preaches to Suddhodana，who becomes an anāgāmī．During the Buddha’s visit to Kapilavatthu，eighty thousand Sākyans join the Order，one from each family．With these he returns to Rājagaha，stopping on the way at Anupiya，where Anuruddha，Bhaddiya，Ananda，Bhagu，Kimbila and Devadatta，together with their barber，Upāli，visit him and seek ordination.
On his return to Rājagaha the Buddha resides in the Sītavana．（J.i.92，the story is also told in the Vinaya ii.154，but no date is indicated）．There Sudatta，later known as Anāthapindika，visits him，is converted，and invites him to Sāvatthi．The Buddha accepts the invitation and journeys through Vesāli to Sāvatthi，there to pass the rainy season．（Vin.ii.158； but see BuA.3，where the Buddha is mentioned as having spent the vassa in Rājagaha）．Anāthapindika gifts Jetavana，provided with every necessity，for the residence of the Buddha and his monks．Probably to this period belongs the conversion of Migāra，father-in-law of Visākhā，and the construction，by Visākhā，of the Pubbārāma at Sāvatthi．The vassa of the fourth year the Buddha spends at Veluvana，where he converts Uggasena．（DhA.iv.59f）．In the fifth year Suddhodana dies，having realised arahant-ship，and the Buddha flies through the air，from the Kūtāgārasālā in Vesāli where he was staying，to preach to his father on his death-bed．According to one account it is at this time that the quarrel breaks out between the Sākyans and the Koliyans regarding the irrigation of the river Rohinī．（AA.i.186； SNA.i.357； ThigA.141； details of the quarrel are given in J.v.412ff）．The Buddha persuades them to make peace，and takes up his abode in the Nigrodhārāma．Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī，with other Sākiyan women，visits him there and asks that women may be allowed to join the Order．Three times the request is made，three times refused，the Buddha then returning to Vesāli．The women cut off their hair，don yellow robes and follow him thither．Ananda intercedes on their behalf and their request is granted．（Vin.ii.253ff； A.iv.274f.； for details see Mahā Pajāpati）.
In the sixth year the Buddha again performs the Yamakapātihāriya，this time at the foot of the Gandamba tree in Sāvatthi．Prior to this，the Buddha had forbidden any display of magic powers，but makes an exception in his own case （DhA.iii.199f.； J.iv.265，etc.）.
He spends the vassa at Mankulapabbata．After the performance of the miracle he follows the custom of all Buddhas and ascends to Tāvatimsa in three strides to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother who is born there as a deva，and there he keeps the seventh vassa．The multitude，gathered at Sāvatthi at the Yamakapātihāriya，refuse to go away until they have seen him．For three months，therefore，Moggallāna expounds to them the Dhamma，while Culla Anāthapindika provides them with food．During the preaching of the Abhidhamma，Sāriputta visits the Buddha daily and learns from him all that has been recited the previous day．At the end of the vassa，the Buddha descends a jewelled staircase and comes to earth at Sankassa，thirty leagues from Sāvatthi．（For details see Devorohana）．It was about this time，when the Buddha’s fame was at its height，that the notorious Ciñcā-mānavikā was persuaded by members of some hostile sect to bring a vile accusation against the Buddha．A similar story，told in connection with a paribbājikā named Sundarī，probably refers to a later date.
The eighth year the Buddha spends in the country of the Bhaggas and there，while residing in Bhesakalāvana near Sumsumāragiri，he meets Nakulapitā and his wife，who had been his parents in five hundred former births （A.A.i.217）．
The same is told of another old couple in Sāketa．See the Sāketa Jātaka．The Buddha evidently stayed again at Sumsumāragiri many years later．It was during his second visit that Bodhirājakumāra （q.v.） invited him to a meal at his new palace in order that the Buddha might consecrate the building by his presence.
In the ninth year the Buddha is at Kosambī．While on a visit to the Kuru country he is offered in marriage Māgandiyā，the beautiful daughter of the brahmin Māgandiyā．The refusal of the offer，accompanied by insulting remarks about physical beauty，arouses the enmity of Māgandiyā who，thenceforward，cherishes hatred against the Buddha.
SN.，pp.163ff； SNA.ii.542ff； DhA.i.199ff Thomas （op．cit.，109） assigns the Māgandiyā incident to the ninth year．I am not sure if this is correct，for the Commentaries say the Buddha was then living at Sāvatthi.
In the tenth year there arises among the monks at Kosambī a schism which threatens the very existence of the Order．The Buddha，failing in his attempts to reconcile the disputants，retires in disgust to the Pārileyyaka forest，passing on his way through Bālakalonakāragāma and Pācīnavamsadāya．In the forest he is protected and waited upon by a friendly elephant who has left the herd．The Buddha spends the rainy season there and returns to Sāvatthi．By this time the Kosambī monks have recovered their senses and ask the Buddha’s pardon．This is granted and the dispute settled．（Vin.i.337ff； J.iii.486f； DhA.i.44ff； but see Ud.iv.5； s.v．Pārileyyaka）.
In the eleventh year the Buddha resides at the brahmin village of Ekanālā and converts Kasi-Bhāradvāja （SN.，p.12f.； S.i.172f）．The twelfth year he spends at Verañjā，keeping the vassa there at the request of the brahmin Verañja．But Verañja forgets his obligations； there is a famine，and five hundred horse-merchants supply the monks with food．Moggallāna’s offer to obtain food by means of magic power is discouraged （Vin.iii.1ff； J.iii.494f； DhA.ii.153）．The thirteenth Retreat is kept at Cālikapabbata，where Meghiya is the Buddha’s personal attendant （A.iv.354； Ud.iv.1）．The fourteenth year is spent at Sāvatthi，and there Rāhula receives the upasampadā ordination.
In the fifteenth year the Buddha revisits Kapilavatthu，and there his father-in-law，Suppabuddha，in a drunken fit，refuses to let the Buddha pass through the streets．Seven days later he is swallowed up by the earth at the foot of his palace （DhA.iii.44）.
The chief event of the sixteenth year，which the Buddha spent at ālavī，is the conversion of the yakkha ālavaka．In the seventeenth year the Buddha is back at Sāvatthi，but he visits ālavī again out of compassion for a poor farmer who becomes a sotāpanna after hearing him preach （DhA.iii.262ff）．He spends the rainy season at Rājagaha．In the next year he again comes to ālavī from Jetavana for the sake of a poor weaver’s daughter．She had heard him preach，three years earlier，on the desirability of meditating upon death．She alone gave heed to his admonition and，when the Buddha knows of her imminent death，he journeys thirty leagues to preach to her and establish her in the sotāpattiphala （DhA.iii.170ff）.
The Retreat of this year and also that of the nineteenth are spent at Cālikapabbata．In the twentieth year takes place the miraculous conversion of the robber Angulimāla．He becomes an arahant and dies sho
|Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.|
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|Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္|
|Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္|
[ေဂါတမ+ဏ။ ေဂါတမႆ ပုေတၱာ။ ႐ူ။၃၆၅။ ေဂါတမဝံသႆ ကပိလႆ မုနိေနာ သိႆတာယ သက်ာ ေဂါတမာ၊ ဘဂဝါ ပန ေဂါတမဝံေသ ဥပၸႏၷတၱာ ေဂါတမႆ မုနိေနာ အပစၥံ ေဂါတေမာ။ ဓာန္၊ဋီ။၄။]
（၁） ေဂြတမမည္သူ။ （၂） ေဂါတမနတ္။ （၃） ေဂါတမေတာင္။ （၄） ေဂါတမမည္ေသာ ကကၠာ႐ုနတ္ပန္း။ （၅） ေဂါတမရဟန္း။ （၆） ေနမင္း။
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