Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

Pāḷi Dictionary

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漢譯パーリ語辭典 黃秉榮譯
dukkha:a.n.[Sk.duḥkha] 苦,苦痛,苦惱.instr.dukkhena (頗)困難,好不容易,勉勉強強.abl.dukkhato 從(由,比)苦,當作苦,作為苦.-ākāra 苦相.-ānupassanā 苦隨觀.-āhāra 苦導入.-indriya 苦根.-udraya 招引(生起)苦(yielding pain).-ūpasama 苦的寂滅.-kkhandha 苦蘊.-kkhaya 苦盡.-dukkhatā 苦苦性.-dhamma 苦法.-dhātu 苦界.-nirodha 苦滅.-paṭipadā 苦行道.-vipāka 苦報.-vedanā 苦受.-vedanīya 苦所受,應受苦的.-sacca 苦諦.-samudaya 苦集.-sahagata 苦俱的.-sīla 苦戒,悲觀性的.
パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
dukkha:a.n.[Sk.duḥkha] 苦,苦痛,苦悩.instr.dukkhena 困難して,やっと.abl.dukkhato 苦より,苦として.-ākāra 苦相 -ānupassanā 苦随観.-āhāra 苦導入.-indriya 苦根.-udraya 苦を引く.-ūpasama 苦の寂滅.-kkhandha苦蘊.-kkhaya苦尽.-dukkhatā 苦苦性.-dhamma 苦法.-dhātu 苦界.-nirodha 苦滅.-paṭipadā 苦行道.-vipāka苦報.-vedanā 苦受.-vedanīya 苦所受,苦を受くべき.-sacca 苦諦.-samudaya 苦集.-sahagata 苦俱の.-sīla 苦戒,悲観性の.
増補改訂パーリ語辞典 水野弘元著
dukkha:a.n.[Sk.duḥkha] 苦,苦痛,苦悩.instr.dukkhena 困難して,やっと.abl.dukkhato;dukkhe苦に于て,苦に对して.dukkhe anatta-saññā苦无我想.dukkhe ñāṇam苦智[四智の一].-ākāra 苦相.-adhivāha-dhamma苦を引く法.-ānupassanā 苦随観.-āhāra 苦導入.-indriya 苦根.-udraya 苦を引く.-udraya-dukkhavipāka引苦し苦报ある.-upasama苦の寂滅.-kkhandha苦蘊.-kkhaya苦尽.-dukkhatā 苦苦性.-dhamma 苦法.-dhātu 苦界.-nirodha 苦滅.-nirodhagāminī-patipadā苦の滅に至る道.-paṭipadā 苦行道.-lakkhaṇa苦相.-vipāka苦報.-vedanā 苦受.-vedanīya 苦所受,苦を受くべき.-sacca 苦諦.-saññā苦想.-samudaya 苦集.-sahagata 苦俱の.-sīla 苦戒,悲観性の
《巴漢詞典》Mahāñāṇo Bhikkhu編著
Dukkha,【中】 苦,苦楚,痛苦,悲慘,極大的痛苦,不便之處。 ~kkhaya,【陽】 苦盡(痛苦的消失)。 ~ kkhandha,【陽】 苦蘊。 ~nidāna,【中】痛苦的來源。【 形】 引起痛苦的。 ~nirodha。【 陽】 苦滅。 ~nirodhagāminī,【陰】 導致苦滅之道。 ~antagū,【形】 已征服苦的人。 ~paṭikkūla,【形】嫌惡苦的。 ~pareta,【形】 被悲慘而痛苦的。 ~ppatta,【形】 在痛苦中的。 ~ppahāṇa,【中】 斷苦(痛苦的斷除)。 ~vipāka,【形】 苦報的(有痛苦的果報的),創造痛苦的。 ~sacca,【中】 苦諦(痛苦的真理)。~samudaya,【陽】 苦集(痛苦的起源)。 ~samphassa,【形】 苦觸的(有痛苦的觸覺的)。 ~seyyā,【 陰】 苦睡(不舒服的睡眠)。 ~anubhavana,【中】 受苦(在受處罰中 )。 ~apagama,【陽】 除苦(痛苦的斷除)。(p157)
《巴漢詞典》明法尊者增訂
Dukkha,(梵duhkha,‹duh-ka,dukkha= du1厭惡+kha空間(=ākāsa)見Vism.494),【陽】【中】【形】苦,苦楚,痛苦,悲慘,極大的痛苦,不便之處。dukkhakkhaya,【陽】苦盡(痛苦的消失)。dukkhakkhandha,【陽】苦蘊。dukkhanijjiṇṇa﹐苦邊,即苦之邊際、苦之滅盡。dukkhanidāna,【中】痛苦的來源;【形】引起痛苦的。dukkhanirodha,【陽】苦滅。dukkhanirodhagāminī,【陰】導致苦滅之道。dukkhantagū,【形】已征服苦的人。dukkhapaṭikkūla,【形】嫌惡苦的。dukkhapareta,【形】被悲慘而痛苦的。dukkhappatta,【形】在痛苦中的。dukkhappahāṇa,【中】斷苦(痛苦的斷除)。dukkhavipāka,【形】苦報的(有痛苦的果報的),創造痛苦的。dukkhasacca,【中】苦諦(痛苦的真理)。dukkhasamudaya,【陽】苦集(痛苦的起源)。dukkhasamphassa,【形】苦觸的(有痛苦的觸覺的)。dukkhaseyyā,【陰】苦睡(不舒服的睡眠)。dukkhanubhavana,【中】受苦(在受處罰中)。dukkhapagama,【陽】除苦(痛苦的斷除)。【反】sukha樂(pleasant)。S.38.14.:“Tisso imā,āvuso,dukkhatā.Dukkhadukkhatā,saṅkhāradukkhatā vipariṇāmadukkhatā--imā kho,āvuso,tisso dukkhatā”ti.(具壽!這三者是苦性,苦苦性、行苦性、壞苦性。具壽!這三者是苦性。) DA.33(CS:p.3.174.):Dukkhadukkhatāti dukkhabhūtā dukkhatā.Dukkhavedanāyetaṁ nāmaṁ.Saṅkhāradukkhatāti saṅkhārabhāvena dukkhatā.Adukkhamasukhāvedanāyetaṁ nāmaṁ.Sā hi saṅkhatattā uppādajarābhaṅgapīḷitā,tasmā aññadukkhasabhāvavirahato saṅkhāradukkhatāti vuttā.Vipariṇāmadukkhatāti vipariṇāme dukkhatā.Sukhavedanāyetaṁ nāmaṁ.Sukhassa hi vipariṇāme dukkhaṁ uppajjati,tasmā sukhaṁ vipariṇāmadukkhatāti vuttaṁ.( 苦苦性:已變成苦性,這是苦受之謂。行苦性:以行的情況為苦,這是不苦不樂受之謂。壞苦性:於壞的苦,這是樂受之謂。樂受變壞,苦生起,由樂受變壞說為苦性。)SA.38.13-15./III,89.:Dukkhatāti dukkhasabhāvo.Dukkhadukkhatāti-ādīsu dukkhasaṅkhāto dukkhasabhāvo dukkhadukkhatā.(苦性:苦的性質。苦苦性等:苦性的有為性、苦性、苦苦性。) Sṭ.38.14.:Dukkhasaṅkhātoti “dukkhan”ti saṅkhātabbo viditabbo ca dukkhasabhāvo dhammo dukkhadukkhatā.Yasmā dukkhavedanāvinimuttasaṅkhatadhamme sukhavedanāya ca yathā idha saṅkhāradukkhatā vipariṇāmadukkhatāti dukkhapariyāyo niruppateva,tasmā dukkhasabhāvo dhammo ekena dukkhasaddena visesetvā vutto “dukkhadukkhatā”ti.Sesapadadvayeti saṅkhāradukkhatā vipariṇāmadukkhatāti etasmiṁ padadvaye.Saṅkhārabhāvena dukkhasabhāvo saṅkhāradukkhatā.Sukhassa vipariṇāmanena dukkhasabhāvo vipariṇāmadukkhatā.(苦性的有為性:‘苦’:當知道有為和「苦性」的法是「苦苦性」。因為已脫離的苦受的有為性的法,如樂受--具有為苦性、壞苦性等,苦的性--不再顯現,所以苦性法以這一苦義定義為「苦苦性」。最後句兩種是,有為苦性和壞苦性這兩句,以有為性的苦性是「有為苦性」。以樂的變壞的苦性是「壞苦性」。) SA.35.136./II,400.:Dukkhāti dukkhitā.(苦:折磨的) S-ṭ(S.1.38.)︰Dukkhāti dukkhamā duttitikkhā.苦:具有難忍耐之苦。《增支部註》(AA.7.17.) 說:dukkhānupassīti pīḷanākāraṁ dukkhato anupassanto.(苦隨觀:由苦隨觀損害的制造者)。ettakaṁ vā dukkhaṁ nijjiṇṇaṁ,ettakaṁ vā dukkhaṁ nijjiretabbaṁ.(這些苦的邊際,這些苦應當滅除。)
巴英術語匯編 《法的醫療》附 溫宗堃
Dukkha:苦、痛、災難。
巴利文-漢文佛學名相辭匯 翻譯:張文明
Dukkha:苦
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
dukkha:dukkha(na)
ဒုကၡ(န)
[dukkha+ dukkha.1-kye]
[ဒုကၡ+ ဒုကၡ။ ၁-ပုဒ္ေက်]
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
dukkha:dukkha(ti)
ဒုကၡ(တိ)
[dukkha+ṇa]
[ဒုကၡ+ဏ]
Pali Word Grammar from Pali Myanmar Dictionary
dukkha:dukkha(na)
ဒုကၡ(န)
[dukkha+a.du+khāda+kvi.du+khanu+kvi.du+khamu+kvi.dvi+khanu+kvi.nīti,dhā.19,113,37va.du+kha.]
[ဒုကၡ+အ။ ဒု+ခါဒ+ကြိ။ ဒု+ခႏု+ကြိ။ ဒု+ခမု+ကြိ။ ဒြိ+ခႏု+ကြိ။ နီတိ၊ ဓာ။ ၁၉၊ ၁၁၃၊ ၃၇ဝ။ ဒု+ခ။]
Buddhist Dictionary by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
dukkha:(1) 'pain',painful feeling,which may be bodily and mental (s.vedanā).

(2) 'Suffering','ill'.As the first of the Four Noble Truths (s.sacca) and the second of the three characteristics of existence (s.ti-lakkhaṇa),the term dukkha is not limited to painful experience as under (1),but refers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena which,on account of their impermanence,are all liable to suffering,and this includes also pleasurable experience.Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' would be more adequate renderings,if not for stylistic reasons.Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable experience,as is sometimes wrongly assumed.This is illustrated by the following texts:

"Seeking satisfaction in the world,monks,I had pursued my way.That satisfaction in the world I found.In so far as satisfaction existed in the world,I have well perceived it by wisdom.Seeking for misery in the world,monks,I had pursued my way.That misery in the world I found.In so far as misery existed in the world,I have well perceived it by wisdom.Seeking for the escape from the world,monks,I had pursued my way.That escape from the world I found.In so far as an escape from the world existed,I have well perceived it by wisdom" (A.111,101).

"If there were no satisfaction to be found in the world,beings would not be attached to the world ....If there were no misery to be found in the world,beings would not be repelled by the world ....If there were no escape from the world,beings could not escape therefrom" (A.111,102).

See dukkhatā.For texts on the Truth of Suffering,see W.of B.and 'Path'.

See The Three Basic Facts of Existence,II.Suffering (WHEEL 191/193).
Concise Pali-English Dictionary by A.P. Buddhadatta Mahathera
dukkha:[nt.] suffering; pain; misery; agony; discomfort.
PTS Pali-English dictionary The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Dukkha,(adj.-n.) [Sk.duḥkha fr.duḥ-ka,an adj.formation fr.prefix duḥ (see du).According to others an analogy formation after sukha,q.v.; Bdhgh (at Vism.494) expls dukkha as du+kha,where du=du1 and kha=ākāsa.See also def.at Vism.461.] A.(adj.) unpleasant,painful,causing misery (opp.sukha pleasant) Vin.I,34; Dh.117.Lit.of vedanā (sensation) M.I,59 (°ṁ vedanaṁ vediyamāna,see also below III,1 e); A.II,116=M.I.10 (sarīrikāhi vedanāhi dukkhāhi).‹-› Fig.(fraught with pain,entailing sorrow or trouble) of kāmā D.I,36 (=paṭipīḷan-aṭṭhena DA.I,121); Dh.186 (=bahudukkha DhA.III,240); of jāti M.I,185 (cp.ariyasacca,below B I.); in combn dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā D.III,106; Dhs.176; Nett 7,112 sq.,cp.A.II,149 sq.ekanta° very painful,giving much pain S.II,173; III,69.dukkhaṁ (adv.) with difficulty,hardly J.I,215.

B.(nt.; but pl.also dukkhā,e.g.S.I,23; Sn.728; Dh.202,203,221.Spelling dukha (after sukha) at Dh.83,203).There is no word in English covering the same ground as Dukkha does in Pali.Our modern words are too specialised,too limited,and usually too strong.Sukha & dukkha are ease and dis-ease (but we use disease in another sense); or wealth and ilth from well & ill (but we have now lost ilth); or wellbeing and ill-ness (but illness means something else in English).We are forced,therefore,in translation to use half synonyms,no one of which is exact.Dukkha is equally mental & physical.Pain is too predominantly physical,sorrow too exclusively mental,but in some connections they have to be used in default of any more exact rendering.Discomfort,suffering,ill,and trouble can occasionally be used in certain connections.Misery,distress,agony,affliction and woe are never right.They are all much too strong & are only mental (see Mrs.Rh.D.Bud.Psy.83--86,quoting Ledi Sadaw).

I.Main Points in the Use of the Word.--The recognition of the fact of Dukkha stands out as essential in early Buddhism.In the very first discourse the four socalled Truths or Facts (see saccāni) deal chiefly with dukkha.The first of the four gives certain universally recognised cases of it,& then sums them up in short.The five groups (of physical & mental qualities which make an individual) are accompanied by ill so far as those groups are fraught with āsavas and grasping.(Pañc’upādānakkhandhā pi dukkhā; cp.S.III,47).The second Sacca gives the cause of this dukkha (see Taṇhā).The third enjoins the removal of this taṇhā.And the fourth shows the way,or method,of doing so (see Magga).These ariyasaccāni are found in two places in the older books Vin.I,10=S.V,421 (with addition of soka-parideva ...etc.[see below] in some MSS).Comments on this passage,or part of it,occur S.III,158,159; with expln of each term (+soka) D.I,189; III,136,277; M.I,185; A.I,107; Sn.p.140; Nd2 under saṅkhārā; It.17 (with dukkhassa atikkama for nirodha),104,105; Ps.I,37; II,204,147; Pug.15,68; Vbh.328; Nett 72,73.It is referred to as dukkha,samudaya,nirodha,magga at Vin.I,16,18,19; D.III,227; Nd2 304IIb; as āsavānaṁ khaya-ñāṇa at D.I,83; Vin.III,5; as sacca No.1+paṭiccasamuppāda at A.I,176 sq.(+soka°); in a slightly diff.version of No.1 (leaving out appiyehi & piyehi,having soka° instead) at D.II,305; and in the formula catunnaṁ ariyasaccānaṁ ananubodhā etc.at D.II,90=Vin.I,230.

II.Characterisation in Detail.--1.A further specification of the 3rd of the Noble Truths is given in the Paṭicca-samuppāda (q.v.),which analyses the links & stages of the causal chain in their interdependence as building up (anabolic=samudaya) &,after their recognition as causes,breaking down (katabolic=nirodha) the dukkha-synthesis,& thus constitutes the Metabolism of kamma; discussed e.g.at Vin 1; D.II,32 sq.=S.II,2 sq.; S.II,17,20,65= Nd2 680I.c; S.III,14; M.I,266 sq.; II,38; A.I,177; mentioned e.g.at A.I,147; M.I,192 sq.,460; It.89 (=dukkhassa antakiriyā).‹-› 2.Dukkha as one of the 3 qualifications of the saṅkhārā (q.v.),viz.anicca d., anattā,evanescence,ill,nonsoul:S.I,188; II,53 (yad aniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ); III,112 (id.) III,67,180,222; IV,28,48,129 sq.; 131 sq.-- rūpe anicc’ânupassī (etc.with dukkh’& anatt’) S.III,41.anicca-saññā,dukkha° etc.D.III,243; A.III,334,cp.IV.52 sq.-- sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā etc.Nd2 under saṅkhārā.-- 3.Specification of Dukkha.The Niddesa gives a characteristic description of all that comes under the term dukkha.It employs one stereotyped explanation (therefore old & founded on scholastic authority) (Nd2 304I.),& one expln (304III,) peculiar to itself & only applied to Sn.36.The latter defines & illustrates dukkha exclusively as suffering & torment incurred by a person as punishment,inflicted on him either by the king or (after death) by the guardians of purgatory (niraya-pālā; see detail under niraya,& cp.below III,2 b).-- The first expln (304I.) is similar in kind to the definition of d.as long afterwards given in the Sāṅkhya system (see Sāṅkhya-kārikā-bhāṣya of Gauḍapāda to stanza 1) & classifies the various kinds of dukkha in the foll.groups:(a) all suffering caused by the fact of being born,& being through one’s kamma tied to the consequent states of transmigration; to this is loosely attached the 3 fold division of d.as dukkha°,saṅkhāra°,vipariṇāma° (see below III,1 c); -- (b) illnesses & all bodily states of suffering (cp.ādhyātmikaṁ dukkhaṁ of Sāṅkhya k.); -- (c) pain & (bodily) discomfort through outward circumstances,as extreme climates,want of food,gnat-bites etc.(cp.ādhibhautikaṁ & ādhidaivikaṁ d.of Sk.); -- (d) (Mental) distress & painful states caused by the death of one’s beloved or other misfortunes to friends or personal belongings (cp.domanassa).-- This list is concluded by a scholastic characterisation of these var.states as conditioned by kamma,implicitly due to the afflicted person not having found his “refuge,” i.e.salvation from these states in the 8 fold Path (see above B I.).

III,General Application,& various views regarding dukkha.-- 1.As simple sensation (:pain) & related to other terms:(a) principally a vedanā,sensation,in particular belonging to the body (kāyika),or physical pain (opp.cetasika dukkha mental ill:see domanassa).Thus defined as kāyikaṁ d.at D.II,306 (cp.the distinction between śarīraṁ & mānasaṁ dukkhaṁ in Sāṅkhya philosophy) M.I,302; S.V,209 (in def.of dukkhindriya); A.II,143 (sarīrikā vedanā dukkhā); Nett 12 (duvidhaṁ d.:kāyikaṁ=dukkhaṁ; cetasikaṁ= domanassaṁ); Vism.165 (twofold),496 (dukkhā aññaṁ na bādhakaṁ),499 (seven divisions),503 (kāyika); SnA 119 (sukhaṁ vā dukkhaṁ vā Sn.67=kāyikaṁ sātāsātaṁ).Bdhgh.usually paraphrases d.with vaṭṭadukkha,e.g.at SnA 44,212,377,505.-- (b) Thus to be understood as physical pain in combn dukkha+ domanassa “pain & grief,” where d.can also be taken as the Gen.term & dom° as specification,e.g.in cetasikaṁ dukkhaṁ domanassaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti A.I,157,216; IV,406; S.II,69; rāgajan d °ṁ dom °ṁ paṭisaṁvedeti A.II,149; kāmûpasaṁhitaṁ d °ṁ dom °ṁ A.III,207; d °ṁ dom °ṁ paṭisaṁvediyati S.IV,343.Also as cpd.dukkhadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamāya A.III,326,& freq.in formula soka-parideva-d°-domanass-upāyāsā (grief & sorrow,afflictions of pain & misery,i.e.all kinds of misery) D.I,36 (arising fr.kāmā); M.II,64; A.V,216 sq.; It.89 etc.(see above B I.4).Cp.also the combn dukkhī dummano “miserable and dejected” S.II,282.-- (c) dukkha as “feeling of pain” forms one of the three dukkhatā or painful states,viz.d.-dukkhatā (painful sensation caused by bodily pain),saṅkhāra° id.having its origin in the saṅkhārā,vipariṇāma°,being caused by change S.IV,259; V,56; D.III,216; Nett 12.(d) Closely related in meaning is ahita “that which is not good or profitable,” usually opposed to sukha & hita.It is freq.in the ster.expression “hoti dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya” for a long time it is a source of discomfort & pain A.I,194 sq.; M.I,332 D.III,157; Pug.33.Also in phrases anatthāya ahitāya dukkhāya D.III,246 & akusalaṁ ...ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattati A.I,58.-- (e) Under vedanā as sensation are grouped the 3:sukhaṁ (or sukhā ved.) pleasure (pleasant sensation),dukkhaṁ pain (painful sens.),adukkham-asukhaṁ indifference (indifferent sens.),the last of which is the ideal state of the emotional habitus to be gained by the Arahant (cp.upekhā & nibbidā).Their role is clearly indicated in the 4th jhāna:sukhassa pahānā dukkhassa pahānā pubbe va somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkham-asukhaṁ upekhā parisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati (see jhāna).-- As contents of vedanā:sukhaṁ vediyati dukkhaṁ v.adukkham-asukhaṁ v.tasmā vedanā ti S.III,86,87; cp.S.II,82 (vedayati).tisso vedanā:sukha,d°,adukkham-asukhā° D.III,275; S.II,53; IV,114 sq.,207,223 sq.,cp.M.I,396; A.I,173; IV,442; It.46,47.yaṁ kiñc’āyaṁ purisa-puggalo paṭisaṁvedeti sukhaṁ vā d °ṁ vā a °ṁ vā sabban taṁ pubbe katahetū ti=one’s whole life-experience is caused by one’s former kamma A.I,173=M.II,217.-- The combn (as complementary pair) of sukha+dukkha is very freq.for expressing the varying fortunes of life & personal experience as pleasure & pain,e.g.n’âlam aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā D.I,56=S.III,211.Thus under the 8 “fortunes of the world” (loka dhammā) with lābha (& a°),yasa (a°),pasaṁsā (nindā),sukha (dukkha) at D.III,260; Nd2 55.Regarded as a thing to be avoided in life:puriso jīvitukāmo ...sukhakāmo dukkha-paṭikkūlo S.IV,172,188.-- In similar contexts:D.I,81≈; III,51,109,187; S.II,22,39; IV,123 sq.; A.II,158 etc.(cp.sukha).

2.As complex state (suffering) & its valuation in the light of the Doctrine:(a) any worldly sensation,pleasure & experience may be a source of discomfort (see above,I.; cp.esp.kāma & bhava) Ps.I,11 sq.(specified as jāti etc.); dukkhaṁ=mahabbhayaṁ S.I,37; bhārādānaṁ dukkhaṁ loke bhāra-nikkhepanaṁ sukhaṁ (pain is the great weight) S.III,26; kāmānaṁ adhivacanaṁ A.III,310; IV,289; cp.A.III,410 sq.(with kāmā,vedanā,saññā,āsavā,kamma,dukkhaṁ).-- (b) ekanta° (extreme pain) refers to the suffering of sinful beings in Niraya,& it is open to conjecture whether this is not the first & orig.meaning of dukkha; e.g.M.I,74; A.II,231 (vedanaṁ vediyati ekanta-d°ṁ seyyathā pi sattā nerayikā); see ekanta.In the same sense:...upenti Roruvaṁ ghoraṁ cirarattaṁ dukkhaṁ anubhavanti S.I,30; niraya-dukkha Sn.531; pecca d°ṁ nigacchati Sn.278,742; anubhonti d°ṁ kaṭuka-pphalāni Pv.I,1110 (=āpāyikaṁ d°ṁ PvA.60); PvA.67; mahādukkhaṁ anubhavati PvA.43,68,107 etc.atidukkhaṁ PvA.65; dukkhato pete mocetvā PvA.8.-- (c) to suffer pain,to experience unpleasantness etc.is expressed in foll.terms:dukkhaṁ anubhavati (only w.ref.to Niraya,see b); anveti Dh.1 (=kāyikaṁ cetasikaṁ vipāka-dukkhaṁ anugacchati DhA.I,24),upeti Sn.728; carati S.I,210; nigacchati M.I,337; Sn.278,742; paṭisaṁvedeti M.I,313 (see above); passati S.I,132 (jāto dukkhāni passati:whoever is born experiences woe); vaḍḍheti S.II,109; viharati A.I,202; II,95; III,3; S.IV,78 (passaddhiyā asati d°ṁ v.dukkhino cittaṁ na samādhiyati); vedayati,vediyati,vedeti etc.see above III,1 e; sayati A.I,137.-- (d) More specific reference to the cause of suffering & its removal by means of enlightenment:(a) Origin (see also above I.& II.1):dukkhe loko patiṭṭhito S.I,40; yaṁ kiñci dukkhaṁ sambhoti sabbaṁ saṅkhāra-paccayā Sn.731; ye dukkhaṁ vaḍḍhenti te na parimuccanti jātiyā etc.S.II,109; d°ṁ ettha bhiyyo Sn.61,584; yo paṭhavī-dhātuṁ abhinandati dukkhaṁ so abhin° Si I.174; taṇhā d °ssa samudayo etc.Nett 23 sq.; as result of sakkāyadiṭṭhi S.IV,147,of chanda S.I,22 of upadhi S.II,109,cp.upadhīnidānā pabhavanti dukkhā Sn.728; d°ṁ eva hi sambhoti d°ṁ tiṭṭhati veti ca S.I,135.-- (b) Salvation from Suffering (see above I.):kathaṁ dukkhā pamuccati Sn.170; dukkhā pamuccati S.I,14; III,41,150; IV,205; V,451; na hi putto pati vā pi piyo d °ā pamocaye yathā saddhamma-savanaṁ dukkhā moceti pāṇinaṁ S.I,210; na appatvā lokantaṁ dukkhā atthi pamocanaṁ A.II,49.Kammakkhayā ...sabbaṁ d°ṁ nijjiṇṇaṁ bhavissati M.II,217,cp.I.93.kāme pahāya ...d°ṁ na sevetha anatthasaṁhitaṁ S.I,12=31; rūpaṁ (etc.) abhijānaṁ bhabbo d --°kkhayāya S.III,27; IV,89; d°ṁ pariññāya sakhettavatthuṁ Tathāgato arahati pūraḷāsaṁ Sn.473.pajahati d°ṁ Sn.789,1056.dukkhassa samudayo ca atthaṅgamo ca S.II,72; III,228 sq.; IV,86,327.– dukkhass’antakaro hoti M.I,48; A.III,400 sq.; It.18; antakarā bhavāmase Sn.32; antaṁ karissanti Satthu sāsana-kārino A.II,26; d °parikkhīṇaṁ S.II,133; akiñcanaṁ nânupatanti dukkhā S.I,23; saṅkhārānaṁ nirodhena n’atthi d°assa sambhavo Sn.731.-- muniṁ d°assa pārayuṁ S.I,195=Nd2 136v; antagū ‘si pāragū d°assa Sn.539.– saṅg’ātiko maccujaho nirūpadhi pahāya d°ṁ apunabbhavāya S.IV,158; ucchinnaṁ mūlaṁ d°assa,n’atthi dāni punabbhavo Vin.I,231= D.II,91.

--âdhivāha bringing or entailing pain S.IV,70; --anubhavana suffering pain or undergoing punishment (in Niraya) J.IV,3; --antagū one who has conquered suffering Sn.401; --âbhikiṇṇa beset with pain,full of distress It.89; --âsahanatā non-endurance of ills Vism.325.--indriya the faculty of experiencing pain,painful sensation S.V,209,211; Dhs.556,560; Vbh.15,54,71; --udraya causing or yielding pain,resulting in ill,yielding distress M.I,415 sq.; A.I,97; IV,43 (+dukkhavipāka); V,117 (dukh°),243; J.IV,398; of kamma:Ps.I,80; II,79; Pv.I,1110 (so read for dukkhandriya,which is also found at PvA.60); DhA.II,40 (°uddaya); --ûpadhāna causing pain Dh.291; --ûpasama the allayment of pain or alleviation of suffering,only in phrase (aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo) d-ûpasama-gāmino S.III,86; It.106; Sn.724=Dh.191; -- (m)esin wishing ill,malevolent J.IV,26; --otiṇṇa fallen into misery S.III,93; M.I,460; II,10; --kāraṇa labour or trials to be undergone as punishment DhA.III,70 (see Dh.138,139 & cp.dasa1 B 1 b); --khandha the aggregate of suffering,all that is called pain or affliction (see above B II.1) S.II,134; III,93; M.I,192 sq.; 200 sq.; etc.; -- khaya the destruction of pain,the extinction of ill M.I,93; II,217 (kammakkhayā d-kkhayo); S.III,27; Sn.732.Freq.in phrase (nīyāti or hoti) sammā-d-kkhayāya “leads to the complete extinction of ill,” with ref.to the Buddha’s teaching or the higher wisdom,e.g.of brahmacariyā S.II,24; of paññā D.III,268; A.III,152 sq.; of ariyā diṭṭhi D.III,264=A.III,132; of sikkhā A.II,243; of dhamma M.I,72; --dhamma the principle of pain,a painful object,any kind of suffering (cp.°khandha) D.III,88; S.IV,188 (°ānaṁ samudayañ ca atthagamañ ca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti); It.38 (nirodha °anaṁ); --nidāna a source of pain M.II,223; Dhs.1059,1136; --nirodha the destruction of pain,the extinction of suffering (see above B II.1) M.I,191; II,10; A.III,410,416; etc.; --paṭikkūla averse to pain,avoiding unpleasantness,in combn sukhakāmo d-p.S.IV,172 (spelt °kulo),188; M.I,341; --patta being in pain J.VI,336; --pareta afflicted by pain or misery S.III,93; It.89=A.I,147; --bhummi the soil of distress Dhs.985; --vāca hurtful speech Pv.I,32 (should probably be read duṭṭha°); --vipāka (adj.) having pain as its fruit,creating misery S.II,128; D.III,57,229; A.II,172 (kamma); Ps.II,79 (id.); --vepakka =°vipāka Sn.537 (kamma); --saññā the consciousness of pain Nett 27; --samudaya the rise or origin of pain or suffering (opp.°nirodha; see above B II.1) S.IV,37; M.I,191; II,10; III,267; Vbh.107 (taṇhā ca avasesā ca kilesā:ayaṁ vuccati d-s.); --samphassa contact with pain M.I,507; Dhs.648; f.abstr.°tā Pug.33; --seyya an uncomfortable couch DhA.IV,8.(Page 324)
Pali Viet Dictionary Bản dịch của ngài Bửu Chơn.
DUKKHA:[nt] sự đau khổ,đau đớn,khổ sở,hấp hối,không an vui --kkhaya [m] sự diệt tắt cái khổ --kkhandha [m] sự khổ của ngũ uẩn --nidāna [nt] nguồn gốc sự khổ [adj] nguyên nhân sự khổ --nirodha [m] sự diệt tắt cái khổ --nirodhagāminī [f] thực hành để đến nơi diệt tắt cái khổ --ntagū [a] người đã chinh phục được cái khổ --paṭikkūla [a] người gớm ghê sự khổ --pareta [a] buồn rầu vì sự khổ--ppatta [a] đang đau khổ --ppahāṇa dứt bỏ cái khổ --vipāka [a] sự hưởng quả khổ,tạo ra cái khổ --sacca [nt] khổ đế --samudaya [m] tập đế (nguyên nhân cái khổ) --camphassa [a] tiếp xúc với sự khổ --seyyā [f] sự ngủ không an --ānubhavana [nt] đang bị sự thống khổ --āgapama [m] sự dứt bỏ khổ não
Pali Viet Abhidhamma Terms Từ điển các thuật ngữ Vô Tỷ Pháp của ngài Tịnh Sự, được chép từ phần ghi chú thuật ngữ trong các bản dịch của ngài.
dukkha:sự khổ,sự khó chịu,sự đau đớn,khổ đế,khổ
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
dukkha:ဒုကၡ(န)
[ဒုကၡ+အ။ ဒု+ခါဒ+ကြိ။ ဒု+ခႏု+ကြိ။ ဒု+ခမု+ကြိ။ ဒြိ+ခႏု+ကြိ။ နီတိ၊ ဓာ။ ၁၉၊ ၁၁၃၊ ၃၇ဝ။ ဒု+ခ။]
(၁) ဆင္းရဲ၊ ဆင္းရဲျခင္း၊ ဆင္းရဲမႈ (ႀကိ၊ဝိ-ဆင္းရဲစြာ,ဆင္းဆင္းရဲရဲ)၊ (က) ကိုယ္ဆင္းရဲမႈ=ကာယိကဒုကၡ။ (ခ) စိတ္ဆင္းရဲမႈ=ေစတသိကဒုကၡ။ ဒုကၡီ-လည္း ၾကည့္။ (ဂ) ကိေလသာ (ေၾကာင့္ျဖစ္ေသာ) ဆင္းရဲ။ (ဃ) သံသရာ (၌ျဖစ္ေသာ) ဆင္းရဲ။ ဒုကၡဝတၳဳက-(၂)-လည္းၾကည့္။ (င) ခႏၶာဆင္းရဲ (ဇာတိဒုကၡ-စသည္)။ (စ) အပါယ္-ဒုဂၢတိ-ဆင္းရဲ (ငရဲ၌ ခံစားရျခင္း-စသည္)။ ဒုကၡနိတၳရဏ႒-လည္းၾကည့္။ (ဆ) (ကမၼ,ကိေလသ,ဝိပါက) ဝဋ္ဆင္းရဲ။ (ဇ) သီလ ေစာင့္ထိန္းရျခင္းဆင္းရဲ။ (၂) ဒုကၡေဝဒနာ။ (၃) ညႇဉ္းဆဲ-ႏွိပ္စက္-ျခင္း ဆင္းရဲ။ (၄) ဒုကၡသစၥာ (တဏွာမွတစ္ပါးေသာ ေတဘူမကတရား)။ (တိ) (၅) ဆင္းရဲ-ၿငိဳျငင္-ပင္ပန္း-က်င္နာ-ေသာ။ (၆) ဒုကၡ၏-တည္ရာ-အေၾကာင္း။ (၇) ဒုကၡ၏ အာ႐ုံ (မေကာင္းေသာ အနိ႒ာ႐ုံ)။ (၈) ဒုကၡ၏ ဇနက အေၾကာင္း။ (၉) ဒုကၡ၏အေၾကာင္းျဖစ္ေသာ အရပ္၊ ဒုကၡ၏ ဥပတၳမ႓က အေၾကာင္းျဖစ္ေသာ အနိ႒ာ႐ုံတို႔၏-တည္ရာ-အရပ္။ (၁ဝ) ဒုကၡ-အစု-အေပါင္း။ (၁၁) အလိုမရွိအပ္ေသာ။ (၁၂) ဆင္းရဲေစတတ္ေသာ၊ ဆင္းရဲ-ကို-ေအာင္-ျပဳတတ္ေသာ၊ ညႇဉ္းဆဲ-ႏွိပ္စက္-တတ္ေသာ။ (၁၃) မေကာင္းသျဖင့္ခဲစားတတ္ေသာ။ (၁၄) မေကာင္းသျဖင့္-တူးၿဖိဳ-ဖ်က္ဆီး-တတ္ေသာ။ (၁၅) ျပဳႏိုင္ခဲေသာ အခြင့္ေပးျခင္းရွိရာျဖစ္ေသာ။ (၁၆) ၂-ပါးေသာ-အျပား-အဖို႔-အားျဖင့္-တူးၿဖိဳ-ဖ်က္ဆီး-တတ္ေသာ။ (၁၇) ဆင္းရဲသျဖင့္ သည္းခံအပ္ေသာ၊ သည္းခံျခင္းငွာ ခဲယဉ္းေသာ၊ သည္းခံႏိုင္ခဲေသာ။ (၁၈) ျပဳႏိုင္ခဲေသာ သည္းခံရျခင္းရွိေသာ။ (၁၉) ခါးစပ္ေသာ၊ ခါးစပ္ေသာ အရသာႏွင့္တူေသာ။ ဒုကၡဝိပါက-(၇)-ၾကည့္။ (၂ဝ) ကဲ့ရဲ႕-စက္ဆုပ္-အပ္သည္ျဖစ္၍ အခ်ည္းႏွီးေသာ၊ (ေကာင္းကင္ ကဲ့သို႔) အခ်ည္းႏွီးျဖစ္၍-ကဲ့ရဲ႕-စက္ဆုပ္-အပ္ေသာ။ (၂၁) ေၾကာက္ဖြယ္အာ႐ုံ-ေဘး-ရွိေသာ။ ဒုကၡ႒-လည္းၾကည့္။ (၂၂) မႏွစ္သက္အပ္ေသာ။ (၂၃) မသာယာအပ္ေသာ၊သာယာဖြယ္မရွိေသာ။ ဒုကၡကၡမ-(၂)-ၾကည့္။ မူရင္းၾကည့္ပါ။
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
dukkha:ဒုကၡ(တိ)
[ဒုကၡ+ဏ]
(၁) ဆင္းရဲ-ပင္ပန္း-နာက်င္-ျခင္းရွိေသာ။ (၂) ဆင္းရဲစြာ ေအာင္႔အည္း သည္ခံရျခင္းရွိေသာ။ (၃) ဆင္းရဲျခင္းကို ေဆာင္တတ္ေသာ။
Tipiṭaka Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary တိပိဋက-ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္
dukkha:ဒုကၡ(န)
[ဒုကၡ+ ဒုကၡ။ ၁-ပုဒ္ေက်]
ဒုကၡ(ႏွင္႔) ဒုကၡ၏အေၾကာင္း။ ဒုကၡပေရတ-ၾကည့္။
Pali Roots Dictionary ဓါတ္အဘိဓာန္
dukkha:ဒုကၡ
ဘူ = ဒုကၡေန-ဆင္းရဲျခင္း၌။ ဒုကၡတိ။
[ဤဓာတ္ကို သကၠတက်မ္းမ်ား၌ စုရာဒိ ဆိုထားေသာ္လည္း ပါဠိ၌ ဘူဝါဒိသာ ထင္၍ ဘူဝါဒိသာ ယူသင့္သည္။ နီတိဓာ၊ ၁၉၊ ၂ဝ။]
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
dukkha:ဒုကၡ (န)
ဆင္းရဲျခင္း။ ကိုယ္၏ဆင္းရဲျခင္း။
U Hau Sein’s Pāḷi-Myanmar Dictionary ပါဠိျမန္မာ အဘိဓာန္(ဦးဟုတ္စိန္)
dukkha:ဒုကၡ (တိ)
ဆင္းရဲသည္။ ၿငိဳျငင္သည္။ နာက်င္သည္။
ဒုကၡေတာ၊ ဆင္းရဲေသာအားျဖင့္။

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